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References: Orang Asli bibliography 2001 (12): Clifford to Dawson

Updated: Aug 29, 2023

From: Lye Tuck-Po, ed. 2001. Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia: A Comprehensive and Annotated Bibliography, Cseas Research Report Series No. 88. Kyoto: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University.References 193–218

1. CLIFFORD, Hugh. 1897. A journey through the Malay States of Terengganu and Pahang. Geographical Journal 9: 1–37 — with small section discussing Temiar (“Tem-be Sakai”) on the upper reaches of the Nenggiri. Notes a population of several thousand, who are the sole inhabitants of this area. Repeats rumours of the people repelling Malay intruders [ASB]. Material incorporated into Clifford #196; see notes there.


2. ——. 1938. Report on expedition: Trengganu and Kelantan. Kuala Lumpur: Federated Malay States Government Press — the first reprinting of Clifford’s official report, Report of Mr. Clifford, Acting British Resident of Pahang, on the expedition recently led into Trengganu and Kelantan on the east coast of the Malay Peninsula (dated 7/8/1895). The original version of #196 but not generally accessible.


3. ——. 1899. Life in the Malay Peninsula: As it was and is. Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute 30: 369–401 — includes description of how a pretender to the throne of Pahang raised funds for his war campaign by initiating slave-raiding of Orang Asli. [KME #303]
4. ——. 1961. “Report of an expedition into Trengganu and Kelantan in 1895”, with foreword by Khoo Kay Kim. JMBRAS 34, pt. I — primarily a political document and only secondarily a record of socio-economic conditions in the two states (Khoo, introducing the 1992 reprint). On the 1895 expedition to punish Pahang rebels led by (among others) the legendary Mat Kilau, who resisted British control of the state. With many mentions of Orang Asli territories traversed over by the rebels and the pursuing British force, but scarcely any of the people. The Temiar (“Tem-be Sakai”) portions are on pp. 103–104. Enclosed statement of Mat Kilau’s wife mentions Krau-Sakai guiding the Malay rebels’ party to the Lebir, and two of the rebels running off with the Sakai (one having married a Sakai woman). The location suggests Batek, but Krau Sakai usually refers to Jah Het [LTP]. Incorporates partly or wholly Clifford #193. Reprint of #194; reprinted 1992, with introd. Khoo Kay Kim (Kuala Lumpur: Monograph no. 5, MBRAS).


5. COLE, Fay-Cooper. 1945. The peoples of Malaysia. New York: D. Van Nostrand — standard textbook of the times, crammed with the sort of information deemed necessary then. With chapters and discussion of the three ethnolinguistic groups, based on literature reviews and brief inspection tours conducted with Ivor Evans. [LTP]


6. COLE, R. 1959. Temiar Senoi agriculture: A note on aboriginal shifting cultivation in Ulu Kelantan, Malaya, part 1 and part 2. Mal. For. 22(3): 191–207 and 22(4): 260–271 — well-cited in studies of Orang Asli agriculture.
7. COLLINGS, H. D. 1949. A Temoq word list and notes. Pp. 69–85 in #201 — includes a description of the unique wooden blowpipe of the Temoq and Semelai. [ATR #1680]
8. ——. 1949. Aboriginal notes. Bull. Raffles Musm. Series B (no. 4): 86–103 — 16 short ethnographic reports, as follows. I: Two early photographs of Jakun. II: A Semelai world-making myth. III: A Semelai death warning. IV: Blacksmith’s bellows [on Temoq]. V: Musical windmills [on Temoq]. VI: A Jakun dart quiver. VII: Bamboo water holders. VIII: A child’s toy. IX: A toy water-wheel. X: A Semelai xylophone. XI: A Jakun bark canoe. XII: Aboriginal ceremonial dress. XIII: Tattoo and face painting. XIV: The half-way sex. XV: The eating of castor oil seeds. XVI: A Desin Dolaq word list. [LTP]
9. COLLINGS, H. D., ed. 1949. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum Series B (no. 4) — this appears to be the only issue of the Bulletin focused on people rather than animals and plants [LTP]. Orang Asli papers: Collings #199; Green #1114; Morley #1200; Noone #704–705; Ogilvie #724; Williams-Hunt #981.
10. COOPER, John M. 1940. Andamanese-Semang-Eta cultural relations. Primitive Man: Quarterly Bulletin of the Catholic Anthropological Conference 13(2): 29–47 — attempts to answer the question of whether, and how, the Semang are related to the Eta of the Philippines and the Andaman Islanders, by systematically comparing cultural inventories. [LTP]
11. COUILLARD, Marie-Andrée. 1979. “A Jah Hut community and its wood carvings”. Pp. 123–141 in #30 — on the socio-cultural meaning of wood carving, based on research in Kg. Kol, Krau, Pahang; supplemented with ethnographic notes and discussion of the place of carving in the economy, religion, and relations with the outside world. With a small but useful bibliography that includes newspaper and magazine articles on the carving. [LTP]


12. ——. 1980. Tradition in tension: Carving in a Jah Hut community. Penang, Malaysia: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia — perhaps the first comprehensive study of social change in Orang Asli community; gives much space to the social, cultural and economic conditions of carving. Argues that the production of carvings (among other commodity-based activities) stimulated by outside penetration into the community. Because production of carving is individualistic, its dominance leads to deterioration of the traditionally egalitarian norms and practices. [GB #1677; CN #679]


13. ——. 1982. “Jah Hut musical culture: Context and content”. Pp. 35–55 in Studies of ethnic minority peoples[=Contrib. SEA Ethnog. no. 1]. Ed. Anthony Walker.
14. ——. 1983. Carving in a Jah Hut community: A reply of Morris’ review. Ilmu Masyarakat 3: 94–95 — reply to Morris #646; modifies her original position on causes of social change and gives more attention to the interaction of the capitalist with the subsistence modes of production. [CN #679]
15. ——. 1984. The Malays and the Sakai: Some comments on their social relations in the Malay Peninsula. Kajian Malaysia 2: 81–108 — examines the historical provenance of the term “sakai”. Argues that its derogatory meaning is an artefact of the colonial period and that, before this, it had a range of more benign connotations that reflected various relations of personal dependence occurring between Malays and their Orang Asli trading partners, subjects, or dependents [LTP]. French original published 1983 as Les Malais et les “Sakai”: Quelques reflexions sur les rapports sociaux dans la Peninsule Malaise in Anthro. Soc. vol. 7, pp. 91–109.
16. ——. 1986. Les rapports sociaux dans la société Malaise pré-coloniale: Hypothèses et commentaires [Social relations in pre-colonial Malay society: Hypotheses and commentaries]. Anthro. Soc. 10: 145–162. [not reviewed; probably covers similar ground as #206]
17. CRAWFURD, John. 1820. History of the Indian Archipelago, containing an account of the manners, arts, languages, religions, institutions, and commerce of its inhabitants. 3 vols. Edinburgh: Constable — includes Kintaq vocabulary on pp. 125–191. Crawfurd was classed by Skeat (#Skagden) among the early “comparatively untrained European observers” and described as “a most prolific writer but much inclined at times to spread himself in mere speculation”. Skeat’s bibliography in the same volume lists some of these other writings. [LTP]


18. ——. 1856. Descriptive dictionary of the Indian islands and adjacent countries. London — this appears to be crammed with useful (if not always accurate) information. E.g., gives locations and several appellations for the Orang Laut: Sika, Orang Akik (“Akkye”), Bajau (meaning pirates). Also describes Singapore’s indigenous population when Raffles first landed there. [#Skagden]


19. CROIX, J. Errington de la. 1882. Étude sur les Sakaies de Pérak (presqu’île de Malacca) [A study on the Sakais of Perak (Malay Peninsula)]. Revue d’Ethnographie I: 317–341 — on Temiar.
20. ——. 1885. Sept mois au pays de l’étain, Perak [Seven months in the tin country, Perak]. Bulletin de la Société de Géographie de Paris 1885: 94.
21. DAHLAN, H. M. 1979. Penyelidikan terhadap masyarakat Orang Asli masakini [Contemporary research on Orang Asli societies]. Pp. 209–216 in #30 [#FMJ24] — discussion of social science topics and approaches that bear examination or re-examination. [LTP]
22. DALY, D. D. 1879. Caves at Sungei Batu in Selangor. JSBRAS 3: 116–119 — describes Batu Caves. Expedition led by “sakeis” who pointed to “very original drawings” they had made on the limestone walls [ASB]. Reprinted 1997 in Wonders of Nature in South-East Asia, ed. Earl of Cranbrook (Oxford: OUP), pp. 256–259.
23. ——. 1882. Surveys and explorations in the Native States of the Malayan Peninsula, 1875–1882. Proceedings of the Geographical Society, London (n.s.) 4: 393 +.
24. DAVISON, G. W. H. 1989. Orang Asli rafts. Malayan Naturalist 42(4): 20–21 — photographs of the different types of bamboo rafts made by the Temiar of Kelantan, the Jah Hut of Pahang and the Jakun Orang Hulu in Pahang and Johor. [RKL #1691]
25. ——. 1989. The manufacture and terminology of Temiar bamboo rafts. JMBRAS 62(1): 97–104 — six rafts were built by men from Blau village (the most upstream settlement on the Nenggiri, Kelantan). A careful description of the construction sequence, giving local terms and measurements for each of the parts. Illustrated with diagrams and photographs. [LTP]
26. DAWSON, J. M. A. 1956. Aborigines and the problem of their administration. Unpublished MS; according to Wainwright & Mathews #1703, a typescript version is catalogued as MS. 162 at the Royal Anthropological Institute, London WC1.
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