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References: Orang Asli bibliography 2001 (29): Rachagan to Ruslan

Updated: Aug 28, 2023

From: Lye Tuck-Po, ed. 2001. Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia: A Comprehensive and Annotated Bibliography, CSEAS Research Report Series No. 88. Kyoto: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University.References 746–815


536. RACHAGAN, S. Sothi. 1990. “Constitutional and statutory provisions governing the Orang Asli”. Pp. 101–111 in #574 — argues that there are adequate constitutional provisions that can be used to gain land for Orang Asli through the process of reservation. [LTP]
537. RAFIDAH Ariman. 1999. Penyertaan penduduk tempatan di dalam projek pengurusan bersepadu Tasek Bera di Daerah Bera, Pahang [Local community participation in the T. Bera integrated management project]. B.Sc. project paper, Department of Social Development, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang.
538. RAJMAH bt. Abd. Samad. 1970. Komuniti Temuan di Kuala Kubu Bharu: Suatu kajian mengenai Orang Asli di perkampungan semula, dengan menyentuh soal perubahan [Temuan community in K. Kubu Baru: A study of Orang Asli in a resettlement village, touching on the question of change]. M.A. thesis, Department of Malay Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
539. RAMBO, A. Terry. 1978. Bows, blowpipes and blunderbusses: Ecological implications of weapons change among the Malaysian Negritos. MNJ 32: 209–216 — technological explanation for why the bow and arrow was abandoned as the Semang’s primary hunting weapon. Suggests that the introduction of trade muskets in the late 1800s made the bow, which was used to shoot large terrestrial animals, obsolete. Blowpipes, however, remained the preferred weapon for hunting small, tree-dwelling animals such as monkeys and animals [LTP; RKL #1691]. Reprinted by the East-West Center (Honolulu) as East-West Environment and Policy Institute Reprint no. 14.
540. ——. 1979. A note on stone tool use by the Orang Asli (Aborigines) of Malaysia. Asian Perspectives 22(2): 113–119 — on Jahai of Rual.
541. ——. 1979. Primitive man’s impact on genetic resources of the Malaysian tropical rain forest. Malaysian Applied Biology 8(1): 59–65 — argues that Orang Asli practices have done much to alter, maintain, and reproduce the genetic resources of the forest (plants and animals) and therefore it is misleading to regard the forest as a pristine jungle from which humans should be excluded. Conservation planning must be cognizant of the important role of people in this ecosystem and the long-term coevolutionary process between the social and ecological systems. Based to some degree on observations of Sg. Rual Jahai [LTP]. Reprinted by the East-West Center (Honolulu) as East-West Environment and Policy Institute Reprint no. 8.
542. ——. 1980. Of stones and stars: Malaysian Orang Asli environmental knowledge in relation to their adaptation to the tropical rain forest ecosystem. FMJ (n.s.) 25: 77–88 — argument for the importance of knowledge in forest adaptation. Suggests that different social groups will vary in the degree to which they name, classify, and use environmental resources, which is consonant with their different modes of ecological adaptation. Classification studies of Jahai of Sg. Rual and Temuan of Kg. U. Tamu, U. Selangor [LTP]. Reprinted by the East-West Center (Honolulu) as East-West Environment and Policy Institute Reprint no. 24.
543. ——. 1982. “Orang Asli adaptive strategies: Implications for Malaysian natural resource development planning”. Pp. 251–299 in Too rapid rural development: Perceptions and perspectives from Southeast Asia. Ed. Colin MacAndrews and Chia Lin Sen. OH: Ohio University Press — an argument for development planners to work with, rather than against, the Orang Asli’s traditional modes of environmental adaptation. I.e., argues for socially and environmentally appropriate planning. [LTP]


544. ——. 1985. Primitive polluters: Semang impact on the Malaysian tropical rain forest ecosystem. Ann Arbor, MI: Anthropological Papers no. 76, University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology — case study (of Rual Jahai) to fill gaps in the empirical data on the environmental impact of technologically “simple” societies. For security reasons, Rambo and his students were not permitted to follow the Jahai out of the regroupment area (Rual); this is the cause of the major weakness of the study. Data on hunting-and-gathering interactions with the biological environment (forest and river) is limited. Demonstrates that, though the Jahai (and hunter-gatherers more generally) are technologically “primitive”, their environmental interactions are complex and multi-dimensional and should be recognized as such. [LTP]
545. ——. 1988. “Why are the Semang? Ecology and ethnogenesis of aboriginal groups in Peninsular Malaysia”. Pp. 19–36 in Ethnic diversity and the control of natural resources in Southeast Asia. Ed. A. Terry Rambo, et al. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies — re-assesses the basis for the tripartite ethnolinguistic classification of Orang Asli. Hypothesizes that physical type is a function of different groups’ ongoing biological adaptation to specific local environments (interior forest, coasts, rivers, highlands, etc.) after separation from a common genetic pool, rather than the result of independent “waves” of migration into the Peninsula. [LTP]
546. RAMLAN b. Sarmiran, et al. (Kumpulan 4). 1988. Kajian Orang Asli di Kampong Sungai Lah, Chenderiang, Tapah, Perak Darul Ridzuan 22hb Oktober–27hb Oktober [Study of the Orang Asli at Kg. Sg. Lah, from 22–27 October]. Project Paper, Department of Anthropology dan Sociology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
547. RAMLE b. Abdullah. 1988. Komuniti Orang Asli Semaq Beri dan kemasukan Islam [Semaq Beri community and Islamic conversion]. M.Phil. thesis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor.
548. ——. 1993. Semaq Beri: Komuniti Orang Asli di Terengganu [Semaq Beri: Orang Asli community in Terengganu]. Terengganu, Malaysia: Kolej Agama Sultan Zainal Abidin — general ethnographic review. [LTP; ASB]
549. ——. 1993. “Akal budi orang Semaq Beri [Semaq Beri mental disposition]”. Pp. 63–68 in #455. [see notes for #455]
550. ——. 1999. Upacara piyey: Warisan masyarakat asli Semaq Beri [The piyey ceremony: Heritage of the Semaq Beri]. Occasional paper no. 2, AKASS heritage paper series. Malaysian Academy of Social Sciences (AKASS), Pulau Pinang. 21 pp.
551. ——. 2001. Peralihan ekonomi masyarakat Orang Asli Terengganu: Satu sudut ekonomi persekitaran [Economic changes of Terengganu Orang Asli: An environmental economics perspective]. Ph.D. thesis, School of Comparative Social Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang — on Semaq Beri.
552. RATOS, Anthony. 1957. The “Orang Asli” of Malaya. Kuala Lumpur: Maxwell School — not reviewed; produced in conjunction with an exhibition on Orang Asli organized at the Maxwell School in 1957 (see report in #688). [LTP]
553. ——. 1986. Some notes on the religious beliefs of the Jah Hut. Kuala Lumpur: Balai Seni Lukis Negara. [type of publication unclear]
554. ——. 1993. “Peninsula Orang Asli: Present and future”. Pp. 75–80 in #455. [see notes for #455]
555. RAWSKI, Frederick, and DERUS Knoon Ngah. 1999. Kejadian manusia: An “histoire” of Malay/Semai culture contact. Asian Folklore Studies (Nagoya) 58(2): 189–222 — analyzes Semai telling of a Malay story about the creation of humankind and the founding of the Peninsula. Argues that the story is a socially constructed history that incorporates Malay Islamic elements with a covert critique of the political relations between Malays and Orang Asli. [paraphrase]
556. RAYNER, Daniel. 2000. The dental morphology of the indigenous peoples of the Malay Peninsula (Orang Asli). B.A. Hons. thesis, Australian National University, Canberra — 211 dental casts were collected from Orang Asli groups and 16 traits were studied and analyzed. Assuming the Orang Asli to be a single entity, they are more variable than expected for a population from such a small area. When the Orang Asli were compared to 21 worldwide population complexes, the computed biological distances confirm their high variability. Upon multidimensional scaling, all Orang Asli clustered in multivariate space, yet the Aboriginal Malays were typically Southeast Asian and the Semang tended towards the evolutionarily conservative morphology of Europeans, North Africans and New Guineans. The “Southern Mongoloid” tendencies of the Senoi and especially the Aboriginal Malays may stem from late Holocene immigrants to Malaya. Since both types of tendencies can be observed in all of the Orang Asli samples, and only 60 per cent of the casts could be strictly classified as Semang, Senoi, or Aboriginal Malay, assortative mating may have maintained dental distinctions among these groups, despite gene flow between them for cryptic dental traits. [D Bulbeck]
557. RAZHA Rashid [=Mohd. Razha b. Hj. Abd.Rashid]. 1973. “The Kintak-Bong of Tasek, Ulu Perak.” Pp. 1–38 in #662.
558. ——. 1995. “As the forests become thick with ghosts: A Kintak Bogn narration of time, events and space”. Pp. 74–85 in #769 — on the effects of forest loss and displacement from territory; most interesting part is a Kintak man’s narration of displacement experiences. [LTP]
559. RAZHA Rashid, ed. 1995. Indigenous minorities of Peninsular Malaysia: Selected issues and ethnographies. Kuala Lumpur: INAS. List of papers: Chee #1065, Hood #451, Nagata #657, Razha #768, Wazir-Jahan #961–962, and Williams-Hunt #978.
560. RENTSE, Anker. 1937. Panganerne: Malayas jungledvaerge [The pagan jungle dwarfs of Malaya]. Geografisk Tidsskrift 40: 110–136 [in Danish, with English summary].
561. RIDLEY, H[enry] N. 1893. On the dispersal of seeds by mammals. JSBRAS 25: 11–32 — includes comment on the role played by the Orang Asli in accidentally dispersing seeds of fruit trees throughout the forest. [ATR #1320: 55]
562. ——. 1895. Mammals of the Malay Peninsula. Natural Science vol. 6 no. 37, March: 163 — cited in Skagden for observations of Orang Asli hunting techniques. [LTP]
563. ROBARCHEK, Carole. 1980. Cognatic kinship and territoriality among the Semai-Senoi. FMJ (n.s.) 25: 89–102.
564. ROBARCHEK, Clayton A. 1977. Semai nonviolence: A systems approach to understanding. Ph.D. diss., University of California, Riverside — explains non-violence as a consequence of world view and ethos. [Gomes #385]
565. ——. 1978. Frustration, aggression, and the non-violent Semai. American Ethnologist 4: 762–779 — looks at the physiological basis for frustration and aggression. [ATR #1680]
566. ——. 1979. Conflict, emotion and abreaction: Resolution of conflict among the Semai Senoi. Ethos 7(2): 104–123.
567. ——. 1979. Learning to fear: A case study of emotional conditioning. American Ethnologist 6: 555–567.
568. ——. 1980. “Mothers, ghosts and shamans: Semai world view and ethnomedicine”. In Health, food and nutrition in Malaysia. Penang, Malaysia: Consumers Associations of Malaysia.
569. ——. 1980. The image of nonviolence: World view of the Semai-Senoi. FMJ (n.s.) 25: 103–117.
570. ——. 1983. Senoi anthropologist speaks up. Dream Net. Bull. 2(8): 8 — on Senoi Dream Therapy.
571. ——. 1986. Helplessness, fearfulness, and peacefulness: The emotional and motivational contexts of Semai social relations. Anthropological Quarterly 59(4): 177–183.
572. ——. 1987. Blood, thunder, and the mockery of anthopology: Derek Freeman and the Semang thunder-god. Journal of Anthropological Research 43: 273–308 — critique of Freeman #364 [LTP]. For the subsequent debate, see Derek Freeman’s “A succinct rejoinder to Clayton A. Robarchek” and Robarchek’s “Response to Freeman” (Journal of Anthropological Research vol. 43 no. 4: 301–308, 1987).
573. ——. 1989. “Hobbesian and Rousseauan images of man: Autonomy and individualism in a peaceful society”. Pp. 31–44 in Societies at peace. Ed. Signe Howell and Roy Willis. London: Routledge.
574. ——. 1990. “Motivations and material causes: On the explanation of conflict and war”. In The anthropology of war. Ed. J. Haas. Cambridge: CUP.
575. ——. 1992. Primitive warfare and the ratomorphic image of mankind. Am. Anthro.
576. ROBARCHEK, Clayton A., and Carole ROBARCHEK. 1992. “Cultures of war and peace: A comparative study of Waorani and Semai.” Pp. 189–213 in Aggression and peacefulness in humans and other primates. Ed. James Silverberg and J. P. Gray. New York: OUP — construct models of the culture, society, and ideology of the Amazonian Waorani to compare with those they had drawn for Semai. Reject a narrowly ecological explanation for “primitive warfare”; suggest that the roots of the difference between warlike Waorani and peaceable Semai lies in world view. [KME in #1706 no. 11]
577. ——. 1998. Reciprocities and realities: World views, peacefulness, and violence among Semai and Waorani. Aggressive Behavior 24(2): 123–133.
578. ROBARCHEK, Clayton A., and Robert K. DENTAN. 1987. “Blood drunkenness” and the bloodthirsty Semai: Unmaking another anthropological myth. Am. Anthro. 89(2): 356–365 — critique of anthropological and sociobiological interpretations of Semai as bloodthirsty killers, which has been used to argue that “human nature” is driven by innate aggressiveness. Clarifies the empirical reality: relative to many peoples, Semai are statistically non-violent. The idea of Semai “blood drunkenness” (and some part of the myth of aggressiveness) is a misinterpretation derived from Dentan’s loose definition of Semai buul bhiip in #229; this article clarifies the meaning of the concept. [LTP]
579. ROBERTS, W. Bertrand. 1899. An unexplored corner of Pahang. JSBRAS 32: 1–8 — provides evidence that Malay settlements did not extend much beyond the forest fringes and that the hinterland of this area (junction of Telom and Seram rivers) was fully “Sakai” (i.e., Semai) country. [CN #684]
580. ROBINSON, H[erbert] C., and C. Boden KLOSS. 1915. Additional notes on the Semang Paya of Ijok, Selama, Perak. J. Fed. Mal. St. Musms.5(4): 187–191 — contains information on Malay-Orang Asli relations. [KME #303]
581. RODGER, J. P. 1902. Perak administration report for the year 1901. Pp. 1–41 in Parliamentary Command Paper Cd. 1297 — cited in KME #303 for information on exploitation of Orang Asli trade by Malays.
582. ROE, E. J. 1897. Report relating to Sakei tribes in Selangor. Sel. J. 5(23), 30/8/1897: 413–414.
583. ROHINI Talalla. 1984. Ethnodevelopment and the Orang Asli of Malaysia: A case study of the Betau settlement for Semai-Senoi. Antipode16(2): 27–32. Reprinted 1988 in Tribal peoples and development issues: A global overview, ed. John H. Bodley (Mountain View, CA.: Mayfield Publishing Co.), pp. 363-375.
584. ROKEMAN b. Abd. Jalil. 1988. Rancangan pembangunan dan Orang Asli: Satu kajian etnografi terhadap Semang di Sungai Rual, Kelantan [Development planning and Orang Asli: An ethnographic study of the Jahai of Sg. Rual, Kelantan]. B.A. Grad. Ex., Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
585. RONKEL, P. S. von. 1893. Ein Malayischer bericht über die Djakun der halbinsel Malakka [A Malay report on the Jakun of the Malay Peninsula]. Globus 64: 53­–55.
586. ROSEMAN, Marina. 1980. Malay and Orang Asli interactions: Views from legendary history. Unpublished paper. Department of Anthropology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY — on Orang Asli’s role in Perak state formation. Draws from Malay and Orang Asli origin myths and a rich documentary source. [LTP; GB #1677]
587. ——. 1984. The social structuring of sound: The Temiar of Peninsular Malaysia. Ethnomusicology 28(3): 411–445 — detailed ethnographic study on Temiar music and its sociocultural context. Raises the question why women report dreams that legitimize adept shaman status more rarely than the men and analyzes trance rituals as a way of restoring gender equality. A meticulous and insightful study, a major contribution. [GB #1677; RKD #250]
588. ——. 1988. The pragmatics of aesthetics: The performance of healing among Senoi Temiar. Soc. Sci. Med. 27: 811–818.
589. ——. 1989. “Inversion and conjuncture: Male and female in Temiar performance”. Pp. 131–150 in Women and music in cross-cultural perspective. Ed. Ellen Koskoff. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
590. ——. 1990. Head, heart, odor, and shadow—the structure of the self, the emotional world, and ritual performance among Senoi Temiar. Ethos18(3): 227–250. Reprinted 1997 in The meanings of madness, ed. Richard J. Castillo (Pacific Grove, California: Brookes/Cole).
591. ——. 1991. Healing sounds from the Malaysian rainforest: Temiar music and medicine. California: University of California Press — in the best tradition of ethnographic-ethnomusical research. The Temiar’s social structure—egalitarian, noncoercive, reciprocal, with gender complementarity rather than gender domination—is reflected in their cosmology and disease etiology. Music is literally “the path” for the performance of healing. . .proper music and ritual lead a soul back to the body which it has strayed. With appendix of Temiar song-texts in careful phonemic transcription [notes from GB and from Carol Laderman’s review in Journal of Asian Studies vol. 51 no. 3 (1992), pp. 716–717]. Revision of 1986 Ph.D. diss. “Sound in ceremony: Power and performance in Temiar curing rituals” (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY). Japanese version (trans. Yoichi Yamada) published by Showada Press.
592. ——. 1993. “Person, cosmos, and environment”. Pp. 62–64 in #455. [see notes for #455]
593. ——. 1994. Les chants de rêve: Des frontières mouvantes dans le monde Temiar [Dream songs: Shifting frontiers in the Temiar world]. Anthro. Soc. 18(2): 121–144 [with English summary].
594. ——. 1995. “‘Pure products go crazy’: Rainforest healing in a nation-state”. Pp. 233–269 in The performance of healing. Ed. Carol Laderman and Marina Roseman. New York: Routledge.
595. ——. 1996. “Decolonizing ethnomusicology: When peripheral voices move in from the margins”. Pp. 167–189 in Aflame with music: One hundred years of music at the University of Melbourne. Ed. Brenton Broadstock et al. Melbourne, Australia: Centre for Studies in Australian Music — partially incorporated in #811.
596. ——. 1998. Temiar singers of the landscape: Song, history, and property rights in the Malaysian rain forest. Am. Anthro. 100(1): 106–121 — draws from the historical conjunction of two events: colonial mapping of the Perak-Kelantan watershed and the emergence of a new song-and-performance genre among the Temiar, cincem (reported in Noone #699). Argues that music was the medium through which Temiar documented their sense of imminent loss as lands were expropriated; furthermore, songs were and are maps of the landscape that incorporate named places, experiences, and notions of tenure and property. However, this type of cartography and history-making does not fit into the state-centric vision of development and resource exploitation [LTP]. Reprinted in Culture and the question of rights in Southeast Asia: Forests, coasts, and seas, ed. Charles Zerner (Chapel Hill: Duke University Press).
597. ——. 2000. “Ghosts of the past, spirits from the future: Revitalization movements and social healing”. Pp. 109–129 in Healing powers and modernity in Asian societies: Traditional medicine, shamanism, and science in Asian societies. Ed. Linda Connor and Geoffrey Samuel. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press — on Temiar music; partially incorporated in #811. This chapter has also been cited as “Engaging the spirits of mdoernity: The Temiars”.
598. ——. 2000. “Shifting landscapes: Mediating modernity in a Malaysian rainforest”. In Sound of nature, sound of culture: Resounding with environment. Ed. Yoichi Yamada. Kyoto, Japan: Human Being and Environment Series no. 11, Shouwado Publishing Co [in Japanese] — on Temiar music.
599. ——. 2000. “Shifting landscapes: Musical mediations of modernity in the Malaysian rainforest”. Yearbook for traditional music 32: 31–65. New York: International Council for Traditional Music — on Temiar music.
600. ——. 2000. “The canned sardine spirit takes the mic: Spirit mediums as mediators of social change”. In The world of music: Journal of the International Institute for Traditional Music, vol. 3. Berlin: Institute for Traditional Music — on Temiar music.
601. ——. 2001/2002. “Engaging the spirits of modernity: The Temiars”. In Benjamin and Chou, eds., #126 — investigates how local people deal with global processes, focusing on dream and song. Spirit songs that ostensibly are sung for individual healing are also commentaries on the larger problems in society caused by land and resource degradation and loss [LTP]. For publication notes, see #126.
602. ROSLAN Nik. 1989. Orang Asli dan masyarakat umum: Satu kajian kes terhadap komuniti Orang Ulu (Jakun) di kawasan Rancangan Pengumpulan Semula (RPS) Kedaik, Pahang [Orang Asli and the broader society: A case study of the Jakun at RPS Kedaik, Pahang]. B.A. Grad. Ex., Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
603. ROSNAH, A. 1982. Useful plants of the Temuan in Ulu Gombak and Ulu Langat, Selangor. B.A. Grad. Ex., Department of Botany, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
604. ROWLAND, W. R. 1898. Bemerkungen über einen kleinen Stamm von Orang Bukit, zur Zeit angesiedelt und beobachtet auf Perhentian Tinggi Estate, Negri Sembilan Mai-Sept 1886 [Observations on a small tribe of Orang Bukit, at that time settled and reported on in Perhentian Tinggi Estate, Negeri Sembilan, May-September 1886]. Mitteilungen d. k. k. Geographischen Gesellschaft, in Wien 41(10­–11): 706–713 — on a small group of Temuan in Labu district, who were a sub-group of “one of the four great Sakai families” from the mountains of “Skudei”. [passage reproduced in Skagden vol. 1: 69–70]
605. RUSLAN b. Said. 1991. Konversi agama di kalangan masyarakat Orang Asli: Satu kajian di perkampungan Orang Asli Kampung Lebir, Gua Musang, Kelantan [Religious conversion among Orang Asli in Lebir villages]. Latihan Ilmiah, Ijazah Sarjanamuda, Jabatan Usuluddin dan Falsafah, Fakulti Pengajian Islam, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor — on Batek in Kg. Mancang and Mendriq in Pasir Linggi.
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