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References: Orang Asli bibliography 2001 (33): Walker to Wyatt-Smith

Updated: Aug 28, 2023

From: Lye Tuck-Po, ed. 2001. Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia: A Comprehensive and Annotated Bibliography, CSEAS Research Report Series No. 88. Kyoto: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University.References 948–1001

536. WALKER, Anthony R. 1983. In mountain and ulu: A comparative history of development strategies for ethnic minority peoples of Thailand and Malaysia. Journal of Contemporary South-East Asia 4(4): 451–485 — expands on the work of TCB (#902); argues that Malaysia’s single-agency approach to Orang Asli development would hinder full integration. Warns of the dangers of paternalism and creating dependence. [CN #679]
537. ——. 1995. From the mountains and the interiors: A quarter of a century of research among fourth world peoples in Southeast Asia (with special reference to Northern Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia). JSEAS 26(2): 326–365.


An illustration from The Malay Archipelago depicts the flying frog that a workman handed to Wallace





538. WALLACE, Alfred Russel. 1869. The Malay archipelago, the land of the orang-utan and the bird of paradise. 2 vols. London: MacMillan — concluding chapter (“The races of man in the Malay archipelago”) is a whistle-stop tour of Southeast Asian and Papuan ethnology. Presents Wallace’s position that “Papuans” and “Malays” are two separate races of people. Among Orang Asli, he distinguishes Semang from Jakun (the latter he dubbed “savage Malays”). On the “Negrito question”, then, he rejects a then popular theory, that Semang are descended from Papuans [LTP]. A much reprinted work. The consulted ed. published 1989, with introd. Lloyd Fernando (Singapore: Graham Brash).
539. WATERSTRADT, John. 1902. Kelantan and my trip to Gunong Tahan. JSBRAS 37: 1–28 — reports encounter with evidence of slavery or, at least, claims of a local Malay man to own an entire “tribe of Sakais” (Batek) from the Aring. [KME #308]
540. WATSON ANDAYA, Barbara, and Leonard Y. ANDAYA. 1982. A history of Malaysia, with foreword by Khoo Kay Kim. London: MacMillan — outstansding example of how Malaysian history can be treated as a cohesive whole. Considers the implications of the ethnic and resource landscape of the Peninsula, in which the role of Orang Asli as primary suppliers of natural resources to the coastal polities and therefore as key agents in the shaping of Malaysia is taken into account. [LTP; Khoo’s foreword]. Malay ed. published as Sejarah Malaysia (1983).
541. WAVELL, Stewart [=Stewart Brooke-Wavell]. 1958. The lost world of the East: An adventurous quest in the Malayan hinterland. London: Souvenir Press — travel account with material on Jahai, Temiar, Semai, Semelai, among others [GB]. Reprinted 1986 (Kuala Lumpur: Antara Book Company).
542. WAVELL, Stewart [=Stewart Brooke-Wavell], Audrey BUTT, and Nina EPTON. 1966. Trances. London: Allen & Unwin — with photographs of Temiar [GB #121]. Reprinted 1988 (Kuala Lumpur: Antara Book Company).
543. WAZIR-Jahan [Begum] Karim. 1974. Participant observation—initial problems of acceptance and adaptation among the Hma’ Batisi of Pulau Carey, Selangor. Manusia dan Masyarakat 3: 82–90.
544. ——. 1980. Introduction to the Ma’ Betisek of Peninsular Malaysia (The nature of kinship; the affinal bond; concepts of size, space and time in child socialization). FMJ (n.s.) 25: 119–158.
545. ——. 1981. Ma’ Betisék concepts of living things. London: London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology no. 54, Athlone Press — analyzes beliefs related to the plant and animal world, particularly the central structural principles of tulah and kemali’. Argues that these principles belong to clearly defined domains of practical experience and their associated rituals, and that whichever activities people engage in influence the kinds of beliefs that they invoke. Includes some basic descriptive ethnography and information pertaining to oral history, social organization, and beliefs related to social relations. Appendices include songs and myths in free translation, with the songs being reproduced in simplified transcription of the Ma’ Betisék language [LTP]. Revision of 1977 doctoral thesis The belief system of the Ma’ Betisék of Carey Island, Malaysia (London School of Economics, University of London). See also KME’s review in Kajian Malaysia vol. 1 no. 2, pp. 183–184 (1983).
546. ——. 1981. Mak Betisek concepts of humans, plants and animals. BTTLV 137: 35–60.
547. ——. 1993. “With Moyang Melur in Carey Island: More endangered, more engendered”. Pp. 78–92 in Gendered fields: Women, men, ethnography. Ed. Dianne Bell, et al. London: Routledge — on transformations in scholarly identity, drawing from the author’s fieldwork experiences with Mah Meri. [LTP]
548. ——. 1993. “Ma’Betise’: Trustees of the ancestors”. Pp. 32–35 in #455. [see notes for #455]
549. ——. 1995. “Malaysia’s indigenous minorities: Discrepancies between nation-building and ethnic consciousness”. Pp. 18–35 in #769 — argues that the national policy towards Orang Asli contradicts the overall theme of cultural pluralism. Unlike the dominant groups like Chinese and Indian, which are free to articulate a pluralistic identity, Orang Asli are subject to pressures to assimilate into Malay society. Orang Asli themselves maintain ethnic boundaries and they cannot be treated as a homogenous group. Pressures on them, however, evoke a sense of common destiny as a culturally plural minority. [LTP]
550. ——. 1995. “Transformations in Ma’ Betise’ economics and ideology: Recurrent themes of nomadism”. Pp. 109–127 in #769 — on the persistence of mobility as survival strategy and its continuity through history. As lands are circumscribed and mobility is no longer possible, it persists in ideology and may be key to the people’s need for cultural regeneration. [LTP]
551. ——. 1996. “Anthropology without tears: How a ‘local’ sees the ‘local’ and the ‘global’”. Pp. 115–138 in The future of anthropological knowledge. Ed. Henrietta L. Moore. London and New York: ASA Decennial Series (The Uses of Knowledge: Global and Local Relations), Routledge — examination of the uses of knowledge, with the Ma’ Betise’ view of the cosmos pressed into service to delineate levels of power and authority in the world of theory-building and knowledge construction. Includes general remarks on the state of Orang Asli knowledge and culture today and the political role of anthropologists. [LTP]
552. ——. 1999. A socio-historical account of the Ma’ Betisek (Mah Meri) in Selangor, Malaysia: Pioneer heritage in Telu’ Gunjeng or Carey Island. Occasional paper no. 4, AKASS heritage paper series. Malaysian Academy of Social Sciences (AKASS), Pulau Pinang. 55 pp.
553. WELD, F. A. 1884. The Straits Settlements and British Malaya. Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute 15: 265–311 — cited in KME #303 for information on Malay slavery of Orang Asli. [LTP]
554. ——. 1884. Letter to the Earl of Derby. Pp. 8–9 in Correspondence respecting the Protected Malay States. Parliamentary Command Paper Cd. 4192 — cited in KME #303 for information on what Orang Asli do after being freed from slavery. [LTP]
555. WELLS, Carveth. 1925. Six years in the Malay jungle. New York: Doubeday — pp. 98–131 describe Wells’ experiences along the Tanum and encounter with the then-elusive Batek Tanum; the first known mention of the people. With interesting photographs of “Sakai” (Semai) and Batek Tanum [LTP]. Reprinted 1988 and 1991 in the Oxford in Asia Paperbacks series (Singapore: OUP).
556. WENINGER, M. 1953. Finger- und Handabdrucke von Eingeborenen der Philippinen and der Malayischen Halbinsel [Finger‑ and hand-prints of aborigines in the Philippines and the Malay Peninsula]. Mitt. Anthrop. Gis. Wien 82: 92–120 — compares fingerprint patterns of Orang Asli to other Southeast Asian aboriginal populations. [ATR #1680]
557. WERNER, R[oland]. 1973. Nose flute blowers of the Malayan aborigines (Orang Asli). Anthropos 68(1–2): 181–191 — professional, even clinical, study of the “embouchure” aspects of Orang Asli nose-flute playing. [GB #1677]
558. ——. 1973. Mah Meri of Malaysia: Art and culture. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit University of Malaya — lavishly illustrated coffee table book on the carving (460 plates), with basic ethnographic information, and many associated mythologies and beliefs about spirits and healing [LTP]. Reprinted 1974 and 1997.
559. ——. 1975. Jah-het of Malaysia: Art and culture, with “Remarks on the Jah-het language” by Gérard Diffloth. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit University of Malaya — follows the same format as #970, with 748 plates. Reprinted 1997 in the Culture of healing of aborigines and indigenous peoples/Preservation of culture and recording of traditions series (Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press).
560. ——. 1979. Can the medicine-man be substituted—medical services for the aborigines (Orang Asli) in West Malaysia. Offentliche Gesundheitswesen 41(1): 17–28 [in German].
561. ——. 1986. Bomoh-poyang: Traditional medicine and ceremonial art of the aborigines of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Department of Publications, University of Malaya — on Mah Meri and Jah Hut ethnomedicine, carving, mythology & folklore.
562. WHARTON, C. H. 1968. Man, fire and wild cattle in Southeast Asia. Annual Proceedings of the Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 8: 107–167 — suggests that wild cattle such as the gaur and seladang are dependent for their food supply on the browse provided by regenerating Orang Asli swidden plots that have been abandoned to forest. [ATR #1680]
563. WHITNEY, Caspar W. 1905. Jungle trails and jungle people. London/New York.
564. WILKINSON, R[ichard] J[ames]. 1910. “The aboriginal tribes”. Supplement to his Papers on Malay subjects. Kuala Lumpur: Federated Malay States Government Press — with a rough-and-ready re-classification of the Orang Asli based on the author’s own linguistic data. Some ethnolinguistic groups appear in the literature for the first time here [GB]. Papers on Malay subjects originally published 1908; reprinted 1915 as the Second Series no. 3; subsequently revised and expanded 1923 as A history of the Peninsular Malays with chapters on Perak and Selangor. The supplement reissued 1926 as The aboriginal tribes: Papers on Malay subjects supplement (Kuala Lumpur: J. E. Wallace), 65 pp. A rev. ed. containing the aboriginal supplement, with P. L. Burns editing, issued 1971 (Kuala Lumpur and London: OUP).
565. ——. 1939. Some “Sakai” problems. JMBRAS 17: 131–133.
566. WILLIAMS-HUNT, Anthony. 1995. “Land conflicts: Orang Asli ancestral laws and state policies”. Pp. 36–47 in #769 — discusses land problems, with focus on Orang Asli ancestral laws and State Land policies. Argues that the Aboriginal Peoples Act of 1954 breeds a culture of poverty syndrome and that an amendment is necessary. [LTP]
567. ——. 1998. “Orang Asli dan cabaran pembangunan” [Orang Asli dan development challenges]. Pp. 76–87 in #416.
568. WILLIAMS-HUNT, P. D. R. 1948. Notes on archaeology from the air in Malaya. JMBRAS 21(1): 150–156 — on aerial photography as a method.
569. ——. 1949. A technique for anthopology from the air in Malaya. Pp. 44–69 in #201 — discusses how aerial photography can be used for estimating populations of Orang Asli settlements. [Gomes #1679]
570. ——. 1949. An introduction to the study of archaeology from the air. J. Siam Soc. 37(2).
571. ——. 1949. Anthropology from the air. Man [=JRAI] 49, May: 49–51 — detailed and useful introduction to aerial photography as a source of data: how to do it, why it is useful to anthropology, and how to interpret photographs. With sample photographs from his own collection (#1663). [LTP]
572. ——. 1950. Correspondence: An up-to-date shaman. Man [=JRAI] 50: 116 — short note on how Bagas, a Mai Sengoi (Semai) shaman of lower Perak, had begun to include a model aeroplane in healing rituals, to complement the traditional spirit boat. Also mentions in passing the Orang Kanaq in Johor adding “modern” touches to their children’s play-carts. Both are examples of Orang Asli combining old and new ideas. [LTP]
573. ——. 1951. A note on Jakun numbering in Pahang. JMBRAS 24: 175–176.
574. ——. 1952. An introduction to the Malayan aborigines. Kuala Lumpur: Government Press — a slim introduction, “a somewhat horrid child of necessity very hurriedly put together for the information of the Security Forces. In no way is it meant to be a technical textbook and I have attempted little more than a summary of the more essential details that the Security Forces should know” (p. 4). The first survey since Skagden, weighted towards the Semai. Based on personal observation and some of the available literature. A summary of major facts and findings is provided for those too “busy or lazy” to read the book! [LTP]
575. ——. 1952. Some Malay and Aboriginal charms and methods of measuring weapons. JMBRAS 25: 56–61.
576. ——. 1954–1955. A Lanoh Negrito funeral near Lenggong, Perak. FMJ (n.s.) 1 & 2: 64–74.
577. WINDSOR, Edna. 1947. Notes on the Orang Liar of Ulu Kepasing, Pahang. JMBRAS 20: 137–139 — reporting characteristic rumours of wild people living in the area, whose identities are not confirmed. [LTP]
578. WINSTEDT, (Sir) R[ichard] O[lof]. 1920. The camphor language of Johore and Southern Pahang. J. Fed. Mal. St. Musms 9(1): 59–80.
579. ——. 1922. “The aboriginal races”. Pp. 124–133 in Census of British Malaya 1921. Ed. J. E. Nathan. London: Waterloo and Sons, Ltd. — the population census of 1921 was highly accurate in its basic enumeration of all races except the Aborigines (no explanation given) [Cant #164]. Figure 33 on p. 98 of Cant’s study graphically presents the census results.
580. WINSTEDT, R. O., and R. J. WILKINSON. 1974. A history of Perak and Three Articles by W. E. MAXWELL: “Notes on two Perak manuscripts”; “The history of Perak from native sources”; “Shamanism in Perak”. Kuala Lumpur: MBRAS Reprint no. 3, MBRAS — with some attention to archaeology and prehistory and Orang Asli presence in the state. Most significantly, reproduces the well-known myth of the “white Semang” whose marriage to a sprig of Melaka aristocracy gave birth to the Perak royal house [LTP]. Previously published 1878, 1882, and 1883 in JSBRAS vols. 2, 9 & 12 and in 1934 as JMBRAS vol. 12, Part 1.
581. WONG Koon Ming. 1987. The bamboos of the Ulu Endau area, Johore, Malaysia. MNJ 41: 249–256 — records eight species of bamboo for this area: six indigenous species and two cultivated at the Orang Hulu village of Kg. Peta. Discusses the habitats and distribution of the indigenous species; appends an identification key to the eight species. Also discusses the effects of logging and forest clearance on the bamboos. [RKL #1691]
582. WONG Yee Tyng, et al. 1993. Kajian selidik di RPS Banun [Investigations at RPS Banun]. Project Paper, Department of Anthropology dan Sociology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
583. WRAY, L[eonard], Jr. 1890. Journal of a collecting expedition to the mountains of Batang Padang, Perak. JSBRAS 21: 123–166 — includes information on plant use by the Semai and on defensive strategies against slavery, like walking on streams. [KME #303; Skagden vol. 1: 182]
584. ——. 1892. Ipoh poison of the Malay Peninsula. JAI [=JRAI] 21: 476–481 — describes several plant-based poisons used on blowpipe darts, but primarily that of ipoh; based on field data gathered from Semang (Kintaq) of U. Selama and Semai of Batang Padang [LTP; ATR #1680]. Reprinted from Kew Bulletin no. 58.
585. ——. 1894. Some observations on the height and eyesight of the wild tribes of Perak. Perak Museum Notes 3: 33ff — one of the rare studies on visual acuity. [ATR #1680]
586. ——. 1894. The long-jointed bamboo called “buloh bersumpitan’, used by the Semang for making blowpipes. Perak Museum Notes 1(3): 54–58 — describes the special bamboo used in blowpipe manufacture. [ATR #1680]
587. ——. 1897. The cave-dwellers of Perak. JAI [=JRAI] 26(1): 36 ff. — found that caves most likely to be inhabited were rock shelters (recesses formed by cliff overhangs) rather than true caverns hollowed out of rock. Includes information on food preparation and the use of salt [Skagdenvol. 1: 118]
588. ——. 1903. “Sakai notes: ‘On the use of bows and arrows in Perak’ and ‘On the possible existence of Sakais uninfluenced by Malays.’” P. 180 in #71 — fragmentary paragraphs on Kintaq of Selama, Up. Perak, and Semai of Batang Padang, with note on how slavery by Malays might have sent Semai into flight. [LTP]
589. WYATT-SMITH, John. 1958. Shifting cultivation in Malaya. Mal. For. 21: 139–154 — criticizes the loss of timber to shifting cultivation. [ATR #1680]
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