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References: Orang Asli bibliography 2001 (36): Health Fadzillah to Lewis

Updated: Aug 28, 2023

From: Lye Tuck-Po, ed. 2001. Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia: A Comprehensive and Annotated Bibliography, CSEAS Research Report Series No. 88. Kyoto: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University.References 1091–1158

Health, biomedicine, genetics

Unless otherwise noted, all commentaries in this section are by Adela Baer. For more detailed notation on particular studies and findings, see #Baer #85.

1021. FADZILLAH Kamaludin. 1997. “Strategies to overcome infectious diseases among the Orang Asli-leprosy and tuberculosis”. Pp. 57–59 in Second national conference on infection and infection control (March 1997). Ipoh, Malaysia: Postgraduate Medical Education Society — sketchy but concerned report.
1022. FIX, Alan G. 1974. Neighborhood knowledge and marriage distance: The Semai case. Ann. H. Gen. 37: 327–332 — uses Semai data to test a general model of gene flow in sparsely populated social systems.
1023. ——. 1975. Fission-fusion and lineal effect: Aspects of the population structure of the Semai Senoi of Malaysia. Am. J. Phys. Anthro. 43: 295–302.
1024. ——. 1979. Anthropological genetics of small populations. Annual Review of Anthropology 8: 207–230.
1025. ——. 1981. Kin-structured migration and the rate of advance of an advantageous gene. Am. J. Phys. Anthro. 55: 433–442 — uses Semai data in simulation models of gene flow in order to understand small societies, especially during prehistory.
1026. ——. 1982. “Genetic structure of the Semai”. Pp. 179–204 in Current developments in anthropological genetics: vol. 2, Ecology and population structure. Ed. M. Crawford and J. Mielke. New York: Plenum.
1027. ——. 1982. Endogamy and settlement populations of Semai Senoi: Potential mate pool analysis and simulation. Social Biology 28: 62–74.
1028. ——. 1984. Kin groups and trait groups: Population structure and epidemic disease selection. Am. J. Phys. Anthro. 65: 201–212 — uses Semai data to test models of allele selection, driven by malaria.
1029. ——. 1985. Evolution of altruism in kin-structured and random subdivided populations. Evolution 39(4): 928–939 — uses a Semai model for theory testing about human population structure.
1030. ——. 1989. Semai Senoi fertility and population dynamics: Two-census method. American Journal of Human Biology 1: 463–469 — key paper on demographic methodology for Orang Asli studies. Reports a two per cent population growth rate at Satak, with a lower rate before 1969.
1031. ——. 1989. Semai Senoi mortality: Two-census method. American Journal of Human Biology 1: 471–477 — reports that lower mortality accords with health care improvement in his study area, Satak.
1032. ——. 1991. Changing sex ratio of mortality in the Semai Senoi. Human Biology 63: 211–220 — reports that prior to 1969 Satak women had higher mortality than men. Other studies indicate that the Orang Asli women’s mortality has remained relatively high.
1033. ——. 1995. Malayan paleosociology: Implications for patterns of genetic variation among the Orang Asli. Am. Anthro. 97(2): 313–323 — review and analysis, with a useful bibliography.
1034. FIX, Alan, and L. E. LIE-INJO. 1975. Genetic microdifferentiation in the Semai Senoi of Malaysia. Am. J. Phys. Anthro. 43: 47–55 — only a few genetic traits that were easily studied under field conditions could be assessed at this time.
1035. FIX, Alan G., A[dela] S. BAER, and L. E. LIE-INJO. 1982. The mode of inheritance of ovalocytosis/elliptocytosis in Malaysian Orang Asli families. Human Genetics 61: 250–253 — on Temuan (U. Serendah) and Semai (Satak).
1036. FOO, L. C., et al. 1992. Ovalocytosis protects against severe malaria parasitemia in the Malayan aborigines. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 47(3): 271–275 — study of Betau Semai. Follows up on the Baer et al. study (#1044) that first identified ovalocytosis in the malarial context; reports that 25 per cent of the population per month was positive for parasitemia.
1037. FUCHAROEN, G., et al. 1997. Beta-globin gene haplotypes in some minor ethnic groups in Thailand. SEA J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health 28 (supplement 3): 115–119 — over 30 Thai “Sakai” were studied.
1038. GAJRA, B., et al. 1994. Effect of apolipoprotein E variants on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins in the Orang Asli (‘aborigines’) of Malaysia. Human Heredity 44: 209–213 — report low cholesterol levels among Semai. [with J. K. CHANDLISH, C. K. HENG, J. W. MAK, and N. SAHA]
1039. ——. 1997. Genotype associations among seven apolipoprotein B polymorphisms in a population of Orang Asli of western Malaysia. Human Biology 69(5): 629–640.
1040. GILMAN, R. H., and K. PRATHAP. 1971. Acute intestinal amoebiasis-proctoscopic appearances with histopathological correlation. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit. 65: 359–365.
1041. GILMAN, R. H., et al. 1976. Heavy trichuris infection and amoebic dysentery in Orang Asli children. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 70: 313–316 — on schoolchildren among Gombak Hospital patients/visitors, and nutrition [with C. DAVIS and F. FITZGERALD]
1042. ——. 1976. Seroepidemiology of amoebiasis in the Orang Asli (Western Malaysian aborigines) and other Malaysians. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.25: 663–666 — on Semai of Satak and Temiar of Belatim. Former had high and latter low levels of amoeba antibodies. Did not study environmental correlates.
1043. GORDON, D., et al. 1991. Significance of circumsporozoite-specific antibody in the natural transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium malariae in an aboriginal (Orang Asli) population of central Peninsular Malaysia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.45(1): 49–56 — on acquired immunity and ignores human genetic resistance to malaria. Studied 275 Temiar. 56 per cent of the four-and-under age group had malarial parasitemia, but none was found for the over-40 age group.
1044. GREEN, R. 1949. Anthropological blood grouping among the “Sakai”. Pp. 130–132 in #201.
1045. GREER, G., and H. ANUAR. 1984. Serological evidence of schistosomiasis among Orang Asli from three areas of Peninsular Malaysia. SEA J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health 15: 303–312 — the three groups were: Temuan (Bkt. Lanjan), Semelai (Pos Iskandar), and Batek (K. Tahan). All three had a low but significant serological response to schistosomids.
1046. GREER, G., et al. 1989. Malaysian schistosomiasis: Description of a population at risk. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 92(3): 203–208 — report that 79 per cent of 56 Semai (of K. Koyan) had roundworms, 93 per cent had whipworms, 84 per cent had hookworm, and none had schistosomes. By serology, less than ten per cent had anti-schistosome antibodies. This study produced sound evidence of health problems in the 1980s that receive too little official attention even today.
1047. HAKIM, S. L., et al. 1992. Seroprevalence of Toxocara canis antibodies among Orang Asli (aborigines) in Peninsular Malaysia. SEA J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health 23(3): 493–496 — on human toxocariasis (which is caused by a dog nematode and is associated with visceral larval migrants); of 480 Orang Asli studied at Gombak Hospital (ethnic group unidentified), 32 per cent had relevant antibodies.
1048. ——. 1994. Distribution of anti-toxoplasma gondii antibodies among Orang Asli (aborigines) in Peninsular Malaysia. SEA J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health 25(3): 485–489 — on unidentified Gombak Hospital patients/visitors. [with T. RADZAN and M. NAZMA]
1049. ——. 1995. Single-dose diethylcarbamazine in the control of periodic brugian filariasis in Peninsular Malaysia. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 89(6): 686–689 — in 1992 the Jahai of Banun and the Temiar/Lanoh of Dala (Up. Perak) had 25 per cent and 23 per cent microfilaremia, respectively. Such high parasite levels, found in government-allocated locations, indicate continuing deficits in the provision of health and environmental services.
1050. ——. 1996. Plasmodium falciparum: Increased proportion of severe resistance (RII and RIII) to chloroquine and high rate of resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Peninsular Malaysia after two decades. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 90: 294–297 — highlights a growing problem for Orang Asli, especially in light of disrupted lifeways. Study of Gombak Hospital patients/visitors.
1051. HARTOG, J. 1972. Institutions for the mentally and socially deviant in Malaysia. Asian Journal of Medicine 8: 170–177 — includes incidental remarks on Orang Asli.
1052. HAUG, N., et al. 1969. Studies of bacterial disease in West Malaysian Orang Asli: Distribution of bacterial enteropathogens. Med. J. Mal. 24: 24–31 — found deep-forest groups differed little from forest-fringe groups in diarrhoea level; those under 12 years of age were most commonly affected. More importantly, diarrhoea has likely been a major cause of Orang Asli infant deaths.
1053. ——. 1969. Studies on bacterial disease in West Malaysian Orang Asli (aborigines): An epidemic of whooping cough. Med. J. Mal. 23: 192–198 — the epidemic covered villages in Negeri Sembilan and western Pahang (Temuan, Semelai, and Jah Het); over 300 children were affected but the mortality rate was low.
1054. HIRAYAMA, K., et al. 1996. Molecular analysis of HLA-B in Malaysian aborigines. Tis. Antigens 48: 692–697 — HLA antigens are poorly studied in Orang Asli. On Temuan of Gapoi, Temiar, and Semai.
1055. HO, L. M., I. CHEONG, and H. A. JALIL. 1996. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure following blowpipe dart poisoning. Nephron 72: 676–678 — on the death of an Orang Asli woman.
1056. HUEHNE, W. H., et al. 1966. A comprehensive account of the malaria eradication pilot project in Malaya. Med. J. Mal. 21: 3–25 — strikingly, only after three years into the project were Orang Asli communities included. On Temuan of Bkt. Manchong, Bkt. Kelubi, Bkt. Legong, Rantau Panjang, Sg. Choh Estate, Sg. Jinjang, U. Kuang, and U. Serendah.
1057. ——. 1967. Malaria, a primary health problem in rural West Malaysia. Med. J. Mal. 22: 60–71 — includes focus on a few Orang Asli areas though the general emphasis is not on them; the data were analyzed at state level. Has been critiqued for showing an erroneously low malarial rate for the Peninsula. [with M. D. AHMAD, and D. S. LING]
1058. INSTITUTE for MEDICAL RESEARCH. 1987. Annual report. Kuala Lumpur — as cited in #1152, pp. 181–182 of this report record a 37 to 40 per cent prevalence of malarial parasitemia in Temiar of Pos Legap, with nearly 60 per cent in children less than ten years of age.
1059. ISHIDA, Takafumi, Juri SUZUKI, Phaibool DUANGCHANG, and Wannapa SETTHEETHAM-ISHIDA. 1998. Preliminary report on the short stature of Southeast Asian forest dwellers, the Manni, in Southern Thailand: Lack of an adolescent spurt in plasma IGF-1 concentration. SEA J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health 29(1): 62–65 — neither nutrition nor child health was studied.
1060. ISMAIL Mohd. Noor, T. S. WONG, and ZAWIAH Hashim. 1988. Anthropometric and food intake studies among Semai children. Journal of the Malaysian Society of Health 6(1): 19–25 — on pre-school children and seven- to ten-year-olds at 13 administrative villages in Betau, Pahang. A majority of the former and over a third of the latter were underweight or stunted, even though school-goers received meals at school.Findings suggest school meal programmes occur too late to solve malnutrition problems.
1061. JAMSIAH Mustafa. 1993/94. Family planning among the Orang Asli women in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor Darul Ehsan. M.Pub.Health, Department of Community Health, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor — on Temuan, with a review of relevant health services.
1062. JAROLIM, P., et al. 1991. Deletion of erythrocyte band 3 gene in malaria-resistant Southeast Asian ovalocytosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA 88: 11022–11026 — includes data on one Orang Asli family, although not so stated in the report.
1063. JOYSEY, V., et al. 1973. “Study of a Malay population”. Pp. 251–260 in Histocompatibility testing 1972. Ed. J. Dausset and J. Colombani. Copenhagen: Munksgaard — includes HLA data on 38 Orang Asli patients from Gombak Hospital; the HLA-A antigen called “Long Malay” in this report is Aw34, which is common in the Pacific.
1064. KAMATH, S. 1975. Hepatitis B surface antigen subtypes in Malaysia. American Journal of Epidemiology 102(2): 191–195 — “Senoi” were like Sarawak “Dayaks”, but unlike other Malaysian groups studied, in having a certain antigen subtype in high frequency.
1065. KAN, S. P. 1989. “Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries”. In Ascariasis and its prevention and control. Ed. D. Compton, et al. London: Taylor & Francis — not specifically on Orang Asli, but a good overview on intestinal worms.
1066. KARIM, R., et al. 1995. Parasitic infections in the aboriginal community at Temengor, Hulu Perak, Malaysia. MNJ 48: 425–432 — on Temiar children. Most have intestinal protozoa species, with 62 per cent having Entameba histolytica. 39 per cent have malaria. Filariasis was rare (11 per cent in all ages studied). There is a medical post near U. Banun and some (unspecified) visits by a medical team. Urged for the provision of poured latrines and gravity-fed piped water. Logging occurs near the study sites of Kg. Samlor and Sg. Tekam (which have no piped water supply or toilet facilities). For further commentary, see notes for #1036.
1067. KASSIM Mohd. Sham, ZULKIFLI Ismail, and LAILANOR Ibrahim. 1987. Nutritional status of children of various Orang Asli communities in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of the Singapore Paediatric Society 29 (Suppl. 1): 96–100 — good general study that should be repeated every decade to monitor progress. Ethnic groups not fully identified. Locations studied: Cameron Highlands (Semai), Sungkai (Semai), DARA project (Jakun), Betau (Semai), interior Kelantan, Sg. Temuan (So. Johore). Reprinted 1989 in Akademika vol. 35, pp. 69–74.
1068. ——. 1996. Nutritional status of Orang Asli children in a resettlement village of Pangsoon, Hulu Langat. Mal. J. Child Health 8(1): 31–37 — on Temuan and problems like anaemia and intestinal parasites.
1069. KHOO, A[lan], et al. 1996. Nested polymerase chain reaction for detection of Plasmodium falciparum infection in Malaysia. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 90: 40–41 — this new methodology shows that 12 per cent of supposedly malaria-negative persons were in fact infected, an important finding. On Semai of Betau.
1070. KHOO T[hiam] E[ng]. 1977. Some aspects of the nutritional status of Temiar in Kemar. M.Pub.Health thesis, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur — studies of food intake based on recall interviewing. This resettlement community was bereft of territory for the acquisition of forest food resources; found that children were underweight and stunted, and women were iron-deficient anaemic. [ASB; ATR #1680]
1071. ——. 1979. “Health priorities in the resettlement of the Orang Asli”. Pp. 177–181 in #30 — still-pertinent summary of the effects of territorial relocation, both negative and positive. Includes a short list of priority issues and their necessary alleviation programmes. [LTP; ASB]

1072. KHOR Geok Lin. 1985. A study of the nutritional status of the Semai. Ph.D. diss., University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur — on Batang Padang. A study that equals the scope of Polunin’s epidemiological work (#737); minutely related Semai nutrition to physiology and life circumstances. [GB #1677]
1073. ——. 1988. Malnutrition among Semai children. Med. J. Mal. 43(4): 318–326 — on Batang Padang and a number of diseases found there.
1074. ——. 1994. Resettlement and nutritional implications: The case of Orang Asli in regroupment schemes. Pertanika: Journal of the Society for Science and Humanity 2(2): 123–132 — review with international comparisons; highlights the need for policy changes on Orang Asli health issues.
1075. ——. 1998. Nutritional status of children in Malaysia: Persistence of old problems. Mal. J. Child Health 9: 133–150 — reviews work on Orang Asli and others, emphasizing long-standing deficits.
1076. KIMURA, Masako, et al. 1998. Twenty-seven base pair deletion in erythrocyte band 3 protein gene responsible for SE Asian ovalocytosis. Human Biology 70(6): 993–1000.
1077. KINZIE, J. David, and J. Malcolm BOLTON. 1973. Psychiatry with the aborigines of West Malaysia. American Journal of Psychiatry 130(7): 769–773 — thoughtful discussion of the lack of suicide or physical aggression, but the dataset in Tan & Armstrong #1294 is more comprehensive.
1078. KINZIE, J. David, Karen KINZIE, and J. TYAS. 1966. A comparative health survey among two groups of Malayan aborigines. Med. J. Mal.21: 135–139 — on Temuan of Bkt. Cheeding and Jahai of F. Banding, covering a range of health, dental, mortality, nutritional, growth, and disease problems.
1079. KIRK, R. 1979. “Genetic differentiation in Australia and the western Pacific”. Pp. 211–237 in The first Americans. Ed. A. Harper and W. Laughlin. New York: G. Fischer — presents a genetic distance analysis showing “Senoi” outside of the Western Malayo-Polynesian cluster, but the methodology is now out-of-date.
1080. KIRK, R., and L. LAI. 1961. The distribution of haptoglobin and transferrin groups in South and Southeast Asia. Acta Genetica 11: 97–105 — on Aboriginal Malays genetics.
1081. LAING, A., and R. WHARTON. 1961. “Filariasis investigation”. Pp. 114–131 in Annual report, 1960. Kuala Lumpur: Institute for Medical Research — the first ever report of filariasis foci in Orang Asli.
1082. LAMBROS, C., D. DAVIS, and G. LEWIS. 1989. Antimalarial drug susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from forest fringe dwelling aborigines (Orang Asli) of Peninsular Malaysia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 41(1): 3–8 — on Temiar of Pos Legap and unidentified study group at Gombak Hospital (originally from Pahang and Selangor). See also #1128.
1083. LEE, M., et al. 1988. Interaction of Malaysian sera with Plasmodium vivax sporozoite antigen. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 39(6): 535–539 — uncovered high acquired immunity in the study group (Temiar of Pos Legap), but ignored variation in human genetic resistance. Found that 49 per cent had malarial parasites. Among children, 76 per cent of the four-and-under age group had parasitemia, compared to 40 per cent among adults.
1084. LEONG, S. H., R. MURUGASU, and K. C. CHONG. 1975. “Schistosomiasis in the Orang Asli (a report of 9 cases)”. Pp. 184–186 in Proceedings of the 10th Malaysian-Singapore Congress of Medicine. Singapore: Stamford College Press.
1085. LEOW, P. T. 1978. Psychological adaptation and the health status of Sg. Ruil Semai community. Research Report. University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
1086. LEWIS, A., and J. PONNAMPALAM. 1975. Suppression of malaria with monthly administration of combined sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit. 69: 1–12 — on Temuan; pre-treatment parasitemia rates were 25 per cent for Senibai (children) and 32 per cent for Tekir Labu (all ages).
1087. LEWIS, A., T. DONDERO, and J. PONNAMPALAM. 1973. Falciparum malaria resistant to chloroquine suppression but sensitive to chloroquine treatment in West Malaysia. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 67: 310–312 — on Temuan of Negri Sembilan; found a monthly rate of six per cent for new falciparum and 5.7 per cent for new vivax parasitemia.
1088. LEWIS, G., et al. 1988. Duffy phenotypes in Malaysian populations: Correction of previous unusual findings. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.82: 509–510 — on Jah Het, Jakun, Mah Meri, Semai, Semelai, Semaq Beri. No Duffy-negative phenotypes were found, thus correcting the report by Ooi (#1222).
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