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References: Orang Asli bibliography 2001 (39): Health Ponnampalam to Zulkifli

Updated: Aug 28, 2023

From: Lye Tuck-Po, ed. 2001. Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia: A Comprehensive and Annotated Bibliography, CSEAS Research Report Series No. 88. Kyoto: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University.References 1252–1327

Health, biomedicine, genetics

Unless otherwise noted, all commentaries in this section are by Adela Baer. For more detailed notation on particular studies and findings, see #Baer #85.

1251. PONNAMPALAM, J. 1981. Doxycycline in the treatment of falciparum malaria among aborigine children in West Malaysia. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 75: 372–377 — tested parasitemics at Gombak Hospital, ethnic group not identified. G6PD deficiency was monitored.
1252. POYNTON, J., and E. HODGKIN. 1938. Endemic filariasis in the Federated Malay states. Kuala Lumpur: Bulletin no. 1, Institute for Medical Research — cited in Mak #1182 as reporting some early filarial observations on Orang Asli.
1253. PRATHAP, K. 1973. Liver fluke in a Malaysian Orang Asli (aborigine). Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 67: 881–882 — showed the fluke to be endemic in Pahang.
1254. PRATHAP, K., and G. MONTGOMERY. 1974. Aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in the Malaysian Orang Asli. Pathology 6: 255–261 — report 76 per cent of hospital-located Orang Asli deaths are due to tuberculosis and other infections, nine per cent to cancer, and virtually none to heart disease; atherosclerotic lesions in aortas and coronary arteries, postmortem, were less common than in other global populations. Age-at-death comparisons were not made.
1255. PRATHAP, K., and R. H. GILMAN. 1970. The histopathology of acute intestinal amebiasis. American Journal of Pathology 60: 229–246 — studied diseased adults at Gombak Hospital.
1256. PRATHAP, K., N. HAUG, and C. P. RAMACHANDRAN. 1968. Hepatic and pulmonary porocephaliasis in Malaysian Orang Asli. Med. J. Mal. 23: 92–95 — an autopsy study on an adult Semai from Pahang revealed incidental pentastomid infection in the liver.
1257. PRATHAP, K., K. S. LAU, and J. Malcolm BOLTON. 1969. Pentastomiasis: A common finding at autopsy among Malaysian aborigines. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 18(1): 20–27 — pentastomes are unusual parasitic, wormlike arthropods.
1258. RAJESWARI, B., B. SINNIAH, and H. HUSSEIN. 1994. Socioeconomic factors associated with intestinal parasites among children living in Gombak, Malaysia. Asian-Pacific Journal of Public Health 7(1): 21–25 — 80 per cent of Orang Asli school children had intestinal parasites.
1259. RAMACHANDRAN, C. P., C. C. HOO, and ABU HASAN b. Omar. 1964. Filariasis among aborigines and Malays living close to Kuala Lumpur. Med. J. Mal. 18: 193–200 — report a two per cent microfilarial rate in 110 Malays versus a 17 per cent rate in 167 adult and pre-adult Temuan (of Bkt. Lanjan). No elephantiasis was found. “Temiar” in the report is a misprint for Temuan.
1260. RAMAH, N., et al. 1997. Parasitic infections among aborigine children at Post Brooke, Kelantan, Malaysia. Med. J. Mal. 52(4): 412–415 — on Temiar. 60 per cent have Ascaris (intestinal worms), 35 per cent have dental caries, 45 per cent show clinical signs of anaemia, and 50 per cent of families report that at least one of their children have died. Medical teams visit four times a year and there is a small clinic with a medical aide. Urge that a larger, better-staffed clinic be established here. For further commentary, see notes for #1036.
1261. ROBSON, P., J. Malcolm BOLTON, and A. DUGDALE. 1973. The nutrition of Malaysian aboriginal children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 26: 95–100 — Orang Asli (identified only by place) and an urban sample were found to be alike in nutritional level. The highland communities villages (including Temiar) were in the “main mountain ranges”: Betis, Blau, Gemala, Sat, Tenau, Wias. The lowland villages (Orang Hulu) were along Sg. Endau: Labong, Dura, Mentelong, Sg. Muk, Peta, and Punan.
1262. ROHANI, A., et al. 1995. Susceptibility status of Anopheles maculatus Theobold (Diptera: Culicidae) towards DDT, Malathion, and permethrin in Peninsular Malaysia. Trop. Biomed. 12(1): 39–44 — in different Orang Asli areas, malarial vectors show different levels of resistance to various insecticides.
1263. ROSLAN Ismail. 1997. Current status of other infectious diseases in the Orang Asli. Pp. 60–63 in Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Infection and Infection Control, organized by Postgraduate Medical Education Society, Ipoh, Malaysia — report from the Director of the Gombak Hospital. The main causes of hospital admissions in 1996 were infectious and parasitic diseases; discussion focuses onmalaria, cholera, and AIDS. [CN #684]
1264. ROYCHOUDHURY, A., and M. NEI. 1988. Human polymorphic genes. New York: OUP — gives fairly thorough reporting on “Negritos” and “Senoi” but no coverage of other groups.
1265. RUDNICK, A., T. W. LIM, and J. IRELAND, eds. 1986. Dengue fever studies in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Bulletin no. 23, Institute for Medical Research — one of the few studies of dengue fever in Orang Asli. Samples came from Temuan (of Kg. Tg. Rabok), other Orang Asli, and non-Orang Asli groups. 73 per cent of 636 serum samples had antibodies against dengue and related viruses; those lacking such antibodies were mainly children. Dengue antibodies less prevalent in non-Orang Asli.
1266. SAHA, N., J. W. MAK, J. S. H. TAY, Y. LIU, J. A. M. A. TAN, P. S. LOW, and M. SINGH. 1995. Population genetic study among the Orang Asli (Semai Senoi) of Malaysia: Malayan aborigines. Human Biology 67(1): 37–57 — the study population (Semai of Pos Betau) was 349; associates the Semai genetically with the Khmer, rather than with Malays or certain other non-Malaysian groups. 30 house sites are shown on the map on p. 40.
1267. SALEHA, A. 1984. Observations on some epidemiological aspects of toxoplasmosis in Malaysia. International Journal of Zoonoses 11(1): 75–83 — review of Orang Asli rates of toxoplasmosis infection.
1268. SANDOSHAM, A. A. 1954. “Worm infections of some Malayan aborigines”. Pp. 210–211 in Malaysian parasites I-XV. Kuala Lumpur: Studies of the Institute of Med. Research no. 26 — on Aboriginal Malays of the lower Sg. Pahang. An important early study; 49 per cent had hookworm, 80 per cent had Ascaris, and 24 per cent had Trichiuris infections.
1269. ——. 1965. Malariology, with special reference to Malaya. Singapore: University of Malaya Press (distributed by OUP, London) — reports that surveys found malarial parasite rates ranging from five to 40 per cent and spleen rates from one to 40 per cent “among the Sakais”. Reprint ed.
1270. ——. 1970. Malaria in rural Malaya. Med. J. Mal. 24(3): 221–226 — this review article deprecates the use of primaquine in malarial treatment for Orang Asli, since their frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is high. This inherited condition can produce acute hemolysis upon ingestion of primaquine or related compounds.
1271. SANDOSHAM, A. A., and MOHD. NOORDIN b. Keling. 1967. Animal parasites of animals which affect man in Malaysia. Med. J. Malaya22: 16–25. [see comment in Polunin 1977]
1272. SELF, J. 1970. Seeds for survival. Bios 41: 154–161 — on pentastomiasis among Temuan of Bkt. Legong.
1273. SENAN, C. P. 1997. “New strategies in infection disease control in Orang Asli population”. Pp. 64–65 in Second national conference on infection and infection control (March 1997). Ipoh, Malaysia: Postgraduate Medical Education Society.
1274. SEOW, H.-F., et al. 1999. Seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus in the normal blood donor population and two aboriginal communities in Malaysia. Journal of Medical Virology 59: 164–168 — compared two Semai communities (Betau and Parit Tg.) with a blood donor group. The Semai were at a much higher risk of exposure to hepatitis E virus.
1275. SHEKHAR, K. C., and R. PATHMANATHAN. 1978. Schistosomiasis in Malaysia. Reviews of Infectious Disease 9(5): 1026–1037 — schistosomiasis is endemic in Orang Asli areas. Orang Asli areas among the study sites studied for non-human hosts included Pos Iskander (Semelai), K. Tahan (Batek), Betau and K. Koyan (Semai), Legap (Temiar), Bkt. Lanjan (Temuan), Penderas (Jah Het).
1276. SHIMIZU, Yuko, Masako KIMURA, Wannapa SETTHEETHAM-ISHIDA, Paiboon DUANGCHAN, and Takafumi ISHIDA. 1997. Serotyping of Duffy blood group in several Thai ethnic groups. SEA J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health 28: 32–35.
1277. SINNIAH, B., V. THOMAS, and P. L. YAP. 1984. Toxoplasmosis in West Malaysian population [sic]. Trop. Biomed. 1: 81–83 — serologically, 18 per cent of Orang Asli showed evidence of exposure to Toxoplasma (a parasite transmissible from animals to humans, which can cause congenital malfunctions if transmitted through the placenta).
1278. SJAFIROEDDIN, M. 1968. Nursing among aborigines in Malaysia’s jungles. Alumnae Magazine, Columbia University Presbyterian Hospital School of Nursing Alumnae Association 63(1): 39–44 — on Jahai and Temiar.
1279. SMITH, C. E. G. 1956. The history of dengue in tropical Asia and its probable relationship to the mosquito Aedes aegypti. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.59: 3–11 — on Temuan of U. Langat and Semai of Cameron Highlands; virtually all adults over 30 years of age had anti-dengue antibodies.
1280. SOONG, F.-S. 1972. Some beliefs and practices affecting the health of the aborigines (Orang Asli) of Bukit Lanjan, W. Malaysia. SEA J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health 3: 267–276 — problematic and probably unrepresentative study of Temuan. Uncovers many health beliefs, largely by studying medicine men (but not medicine women such as midwives). Recommends that the Temuan need to learn health concepts from biomedicine, and therefore discounts the validity of local ideas of health. Not clear how such education could be obtained, given that there was no medical clinic in Bkt. Lanjan.
1281. STEINBERG, A., and L. E. LIE-INJO. 1972. Immunoglobulin G allotypes in Malayan aborigines. Human Heredity 22: 254–258 — on Temuan, Temiar, Jakun, Semelai, Semai, Semang.
1282. STRAUSS, J., et al. 1969. Melioidosis in Malaysia (III): Antibodies to Pseudomonas pseudomallei in the human population. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 18(5): 703–707 — on “forest aborigines”.
1283. ——. 1969. Melioidosis in Malaysia (IV): Intensive ecological study of Carey Island, Selangor, for Pseudomonas pseudomallei. Med. J. Mal.24(2): 94–100 — on Mah Meri; results were negative.
1284. SUA Gin Keong. 1993. Penggunaan perkhidmatan kesihatan di kalangan komuniti Orang Asli (Semai) Rancangan Pengumpulan Semula Betau, Pahang Darul Makmur [The use of health services among the Semai of Betau]. Latihan Ilmiah, Ijazah Bacelor Sains (Pembangunan Manusia), Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang — found 43 per cent of adults had chronic illnesses and 62 per cent had an acute illness, on two-week recall.
1285. SULAIMAN, S., et al. 1988. The role of some cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of human helminths in Malaysia. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 3(1): 1–6 — on Temuan of Bkt. Lanjan.
1286. ——. 1989. Human helminth parasite burdens on cyclorrhaphan flies trapped at an aboriginal settlement in Malaysia. Bulletin of Entomological Research 79: 625–629 — on Temuan of Bkt. Lanjan and sanitation. [with A. R. SOHADI, and J. JEFFERY]
1287. SUMITHRAN, E. 1977. Rarity of cancer of the cervix in the Malaysian Orang Asli despite the presence of known risk factors. Cancer 39(4): 1570–1572 — on Gombak Hospital patients/visitors.
1288. SUMITHRAN, E., and K. PRATHAP. 1975. Rarity of cervical cancer in Malaysian Orang Asli. Lancet 1(7920): 1349–1350.
1289. ——. 1976. Hepatocellular carcinoma in the Malaysian Orang Asli. Cancer 37: 2263–2266 — Senoi are more prone than “aboriginal Malays” to liver cancer.
1290. ——. 1977. HBAg-positive chronic liver disease associated with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in the Senoi. Cancer 40: 1618–1620 — Senoi liver cancer is associated with hepatitis B infection.
1291. SUMITHRAN, E., and LAI Meng Looi. 1985. Race-related morphologic variations in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 56(5): 1124–1127 — liver cancer was found to be quite common in “Senoi”, especially in men.
1292. TAN, D. S. K. 1970. Leptospirosis in rural West Malaysia. Med. J. Mal. 24(4): 261–266 — this zoonotic disease was found in Orang Asli and in other rural Malaysians. It can be severe and life-threatening.
1293. TAN, E. K., and H. ARMSTRONG. 1976. Mental illness in the Orang Asli (aborigines) of West Malaysia. Med. J. Mal. 31(2): 87–92 — describe findings from a five-year study of Gombak Hospital patients, with group-by-group data. However, only focuses on hospital admission rates and not the actual rates of mental health in the various communities.
1294. TAN, S. G., and Y. S. TENG. 1978. Saliva acid phosphatases and amylase in Senoi and aboriginal Malays and superoxide dismutase in various racial groups of Peninsular Malaysia. Japanese Journal of Human Genetics 23: 133–138 — studied staff and patients at Gombak Hospital.
1295. TAY, S. T., et al. 1996. Diagnosis of scrub typhus in Malaysian aborigines using nested polymerase chain reaction. SEA J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health 27(3): 580–583 — large step forward in scrub typhus diagnosis.
1296. ——. 2000. Antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi, Rickettsia typhi and spotted fever group rickettsiae among febrile patients in rural areas of Malaysia. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 94: 280–284 — serological tests of Orang Asli fever patients (from rural areas; ethnic groups unidentified) confirm general knowledge, that Orang Asli had a high exposure to scrub typhus.
1297. TESH, R. B., et al. 1975. The distribution and prevalence of group A arbovirus neutralizing antibodies among human populations in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 24(4): 664–675 — on Senoi of Up. Perak.
1298. THOMAS, V. 1982. “Longitudinal seroepidemiological study of malaria at Bukit Lanjan, Malaysia”. Pp. 274–275 in 5th International Congress of Parasitology (Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology section). Toronto, Canada — on Temuan.
1299. THOMAS, V., and A. S. DISSANAIKE. 1977. Malaria endemicity among Orang Asli (Malaysian aborigines) as determined by indirect fluorescent antibody tests. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 26(4): 602–606 — 288 Gombak Hospital patients and visitors were studied; 89 per cent showed past exposure to malaria; immunity increased with age.
1300. THOMAS, V., and B. SINNIAH. 1982. Seroepidemiology of amoebiasis in Peninsular Malaysia. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit. 76(2): 147–151 — in a sample of 84 Temuan (of Bkt. Lanjan), Entamoeba infection had an 8.3 per cent prevalence overall but increased with age. No sex difference was noted and acute amoebic dysentery was not found.
1301. THOMAS, V., B. SINNIAH, and P. L. YAP. 1980. Prevalence of antibodies including IgM to toxoplasma gondii in Malaysia. SEA J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health 11(1): 119–125 — of the 268 Orang Asli blood samples tested, 19 per cent had significant levels of antibodies to Toxoplasma, as compared to a 34 per cent rate for Malays. Source of the samples was not stated.
1302. THOMAS, V., S. K. HOCK, and Y. P. LENG. 1981. Seroepidemiology of malaria. Tropical Doctor 11(4): 149–154 — on 10 villages in Pos Brooke. The study population was 15 per cent Semang and 85 per cent Senoi (ethnic groups not identified).
1303. VEEMAN, Viji. 1986/87. The delivery of primary health care: A case study of the aborigines of Peninsular Malaysia. Project Paper for the Diploma, Institute of Advanced Nursing, Royal College of Nursing, London — an important report; describes problems in health care delivery at Gombak Hospital and in the village setting. Found that the persistent diseases are infectious and parasitic ones: tuberculosis, malaria, leprosy, cholera, typhoid, measles, and whooping cough. [ASB; CN #684]
1304. VELLA, F. 1962. Abnormal hemoglobins, thalassemia, and erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Singapore and Malaya. Oceania 32: 219–225 — reports a Hb E allele frequency of 0.17 for 41 Semelai.
1305. VOS, G., and R. KIRK. 1961. Dia, Jsa and V blood groups in South and Southeast Asia. Nature 189: 321–322 — report data on “Senoi”, some of which are mislabelled in the Cavalli-Sforza et al. reanalysis (#1061).
1306. VYTHILINGAM, I., et al. 1981. Seroepidemiology of malaria. Tropical Doctor 2: 149–154 — on “Negritos” and “Senoi” (Temiar) in Pos Brooke.
1307. ——. 1995. The impact of permethrin-impregnated bednets on the malaria vector Anopheles maculatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in aboriginal villages of Pos Betau Pahang, Malaysia. SEA J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health 26(2): 354–358 — treated bednets reduced the frequency of humans being bitten by malaria-carrying mosquitos.
1308. ——. 1996. Anopheles donaldi incriminated as a vector of periodic Brugia malayi in Grik, Perak, Malaysia. SEA J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health27(3): 637–641 — on filariasis among Jahai of Air Banun, and Temiar and Lanoh of Dala.
1309. ——. 1998. Prevalence of head lice infestation among Orang Asli in Pos Betau using permethrin-impregnated bednets. Malaysian Journal of Medical and Laboratory Sciences 10(2): 51–53 — head lice, previously found in 60+ per cent of people in K. Milot, disappeared nine months after the nets were distributed, a benefit additional to protection against mosquitoes.
1310. WAN NAZAIMOON, W., et al. 1996. Effects of iodine deficiency on insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 levels and height attainment in malnourished children. Clinical Endocrinology 45: 79–83 — studied children aged 4–15 at Gombak Hospital (ethnic group unidentified) and Sinderut and Lanai villages (both Semai). Malnourishment rates were 79 per cent at Sinderut, 78 per cent at Lanai, and 31 per cent at Gombak.
1311. WEEREKOON, L. 1973. Ocular conditions among the Orang Asli, the jungle aborigines of West Malaysia. Transactions of the Opthalmological Society of New Zealand 25: 30–35.
1312. WELCH, Q. B. 1971. Annual Report. San Francisco, CA: University of California International Center for Medical Research — reports Orang Asli dermatoglyphics are quite different from those of Europeans; Semai and Temuan are alike.
1313. ——. 1973. Peptidase B variants among the Semai, Temuan, Semelai, and Jakun groups of the West Malaysian Orang Asli. Human Heredity23: 482–486.
1314. WELCH, Q. B., L. E. LIE-INJO, and J. Malcolm BOLTON. 1971. Adenylate kinase and malate dehydrogenase in four Malaysian racial groups. Humangenetik 14: 61–63 — on Semai, Temuan, Semelai, Jakun; study of the level of genetic diversity in Orang Asli groups as measured in terms of two enzyme traits. An overall picture is obtained by combining results from numerous such studies. All samples taken at Gombak Hospital.
1315. ——. 1972. Phosphoglucomutase and carbonic anhydrase in West Malaysian aborigines. Human Heredity 22: 28–37 — study of the level of genetic diversity in Orang Asli (Semai and Temiar) as measured in terms of two enzyme traits.
1316. WELCH, Q. B., L. C. SHU, S. THANGAVELU, and L. E. LIE-INJO. 1978. Adenosine deaminase polymorphism among the Semai, Temuan, Semelai, and Jakun groups of West Malaysian Orang Asli. Human Heredity 28: 62–65.
1317. WHARTON, R., A. LAING, and W. CHEONG. 1963. Studies on the distribution and transmission of malaria and filariasis among aborigines in Malaya. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit. 57: 235–254 — wide-ranging report, covering a lot of areas and several subjects related to medical conditions widespread among Orang Asli; presents maps of filariasis in Malaya and of Selangor villages. Groups and areas studied were: Temuan (Bkt. Mandul, Bkt. Tampoi, Pulas, Kuang, Bkt. Manchong, U. Lui, “Ponsom” [Pangsoon], Sg. Lalang, Bkt. Legong, Bkt. Lanjan, Janda Baik), Mah Meri (Sg. Judah), Semelai (Tasek Bera), possibly Jakun (Peramu), and Temiar (F. Chabai, F. Betis, Sg. Nenggiri, Sg. Perias, K. Yai).
1318. WISSEMAN, C., et al. 1955. Leptospirosis of man and animals in urban, rural, and jungle areas of Southeast Asia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.4(1): 29–40 — four of eight Orang Asli were seropositive, indicating prior exposure.
1319. YADAV, M., and F. H. SHAH. 1978. Variation in serum immunoglobulin G, A, and M levels in Malaysian blood donors. Med. J. Mal. 33: 57–71 — Gombak Hospital visitors had high levels, attributed to chronic infections.
1320. ——. 1979. Normal serum immunoglobulin G, A and M levels in full term Malaysian newborns. Med. J. Mal. 33(3): 247–251 — on Gombak Hospital patients/visitors.
1321. YADAV, M., F. H. SHAH, and S. S. DHALIWAL. 1978. Serum immunoglobulin levels in the Malaysian Orang Asli. SEA J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health 9(4): 501–509 — on Gombak Hospital patients/visitors combined with Semang at Kg. Lallang, Kedah.
1322. YADAV, M., S. UMAMAHESWARI, and D. ABLASHI. 1991. Antibody reactivity with two strains of human herpesvirus-6 in Malaysians. Journal of Medical Virology 33: 236–239 — on Orang Asli plus East Malaysians: this mixed group had low HHV-6 antibody levels.
1323. YAHAYA, N. 1991. Review of toxoplasmosis in Malaysia. SEA J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health 22 (Suppl.): 102–106 — rural Malaysians, including Orang Asli, are commonly seropositive.
1324. ZAITON Surut. 1996. Penilaian taraf pemakanan kanak-kanak prasekolah masyarakat Orang Asli (suku kaum Temuan) [Assessment of the nutrition of pre-school children]. Kertas Kerja Projek Tahun Akhir Ijazah, Sains Pembangunan Manusia, Fakulti Ekologi Manusia, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang.
1325. ZALEHA Mohd. Isa, OSMAN Ali, and KHALID Abd. Kadir. 1995. Knowledge of goitre: A comparison between remote inland and coastal areas. Akademika 47: 49–55.
1326. ZULKIFLI, A., et al. 1999. The nutritional status of children in resettlement villages in Kelantan. SEA J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health 30(1): 122–128 — on K. Betis. Orang Asli children were in poorer health than were Malay children; Orang Asli preschoolers were worse off than Orang Asli school agers. Argues for a comprehensive primary health care programme in resettlement villages that target preschool children.
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