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References: Orang Asli bibliography 2001 (26): Nabitoepoeloe to Nyonyo

Updated: Aug 28, 2023

From: Lye Tuck-Po, ed. 2001. Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia: A Comprehensive and Annotated Bibliography, CSEAS Research Report Series No. 88. Kyoto: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University.References 653–719

536. NABITOEPOELOE, B. W. F. (translator). 1950. Bup Menacha Mai Sengoi Pasak. Madras: Vepery — Nabitoepoeloe was a well-known Batak missionary whose activities aroused some degree of consternation among administrators. He married a Semai woman and converted six villages to Christianity, and also undertook an education and literacy programme. [LTP]
537. ——. 1950. Katehismus Lutheran ha Mai Sengoi: Luther’s small catechism in Sengoi. Madras, India: The Tranquebar Publishing House under the auspices of The Lutheran World Federation, Geneva, Switzerland, for the Sakai Home Church, Tapah — catechism for and in Semai; includes questions and guided answers on the Christian faith and some hymns in Semai. [CN]
538. ——. 1950. Sengoi (Sakai) First Primer. Trichinopoly: Federation Evangelical Lutheran Churches in India — Temiar dictionary.
539. NAGATA, Shuichi. 1993. “Taking part in national development”. Pp. 26–31 in #455. [see notes for #455]
540. ——. 1995. “Education and socialisation in a Semang resettlement community of Kedah, Malaysia: The case of the Kensiu, the Kintak Bogn and the Kintak Nakil”. Pp. 86–108 in #769 — explains why education programmes have failed and why Kensiu and Kintak children do not remain in school, by examining how the Kensiu and Kintak children grow up in their own cultural context. Suggests that education programmes do not sufficiently socialise the children to feel at home in the world outside the village. [LTP]
541. ——. 1997. “The origin of an Orang Asli reserve in Kedah”. Pp. 84–97 in Indigenous peoples and the state: Politics, land, and ethnicity in the Malayan Peninsula and Borneo. Ed. Robert L. Winzeler. New Haven, CT: Monograph no. 46, Yale University Southeast Asia Studies — nice social history of a Kintaq and Kensiu reserve, showing the changing roles of various agents of state. Argues that government administration did not begin solely as a result of the Emergency. Even before that, a number of states (e.g., Kedah, Kelantan, and Perak) had developed practices for looking after the welfare of the Orang Asli; these practices fell into disuse with the establishment of JHEOA. [LTP]
542. ——. 1997. Working for money among the Orang Asli in Kedah, Malaysia. Contrib. SEA Ethnog. 11: 13–31.
543. ——. 1999. “Conjugal families and the non-circulation of children in a resettlement community of foragers in West Malaysia”. Pp. 37–67 in Structuralism’s transformations: Order and revision in Indonesian and Malaysian societies (Papers written in honor of Clark E. Cunningham). Ed. Lorraine V. Aragon and Susan D. Russell. Tempe, AZ: Program for Southeast Asia Monograph Series, Arizona State University Press — based on fieldwork among Kensiu of Siong and Sik, Kintak Bong of Kupang, and Kintak Nakil of Tasek.
544. NAGATA, Shuichi, AHMAD EZANEE b. Mansoor, SYED JAMAL Jaafar, Mohd. RAZHA Rashid, and TAN Chee Beng. 1973. Peringkat-peringkat umur di kalangan orang-orang Kensiu di Kedah dan orang-orang Kintak dan Temiar di Ulu Perak—satu lapuran pendahuluan [A preliminary report on age grades among Kedah Kensiu and U. Perak Temiar]. Manusia dan Masyarakat 2: 117–125.
545. NAGATA, Shuichi, ed. 1973. Three studies on the Orang Asli in Ulu Perak. Social Anthropology Section, School of Comparative Social Sciences, Universiti Sain Malaysia, Pulau Pinang. List of papers: Razha #767, Syed Jamal #890, Tan Chee Beng #901.
546. NAIM Hj. Ahmad. 1987. The film “Nomads of the jungle” (NOTJ—Malaya, 1948): A review and a comparative study of the nomadic group’s lifestyle as portrayed in the film and as observed in the present. Doctor of Education diss., Indiana University — based on a study of the film Nomads of the Jungle (#1623), analyzing how Orang Asli were perceived in the 1940s and comparing with the situation today. In 1976, Naim visited the location where Nomads was filmed (Bkt. Asu, Perak), interviewed descendants of the people (a mixed Kintaq-Lanoh group), and made his own video (#1626) to accompany the dissertation. [CN; KME]
547. NAJMI b. Mustaffa. 1993. Perhubungan polis dengan Orang Asli dan sumbangannya dalam keselamatan dan pembangunan: Satu kajian kes di Rancangan Pengumpulan Semula Dala, Grik, Perak [Police contact with Orang Asli and its contribution to security and development: A case study in RPS Dala]. Grad. Ex., School of Social Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang.
548. NEEDHAM, Rodney. 1955. The food economy of Malayan forest nomads. Confidential report on research project for Operations Research Unit, G.H.Q. Far Eastern Land Forces, Singapore — based on travel with Chewong guides [ASB]. A copy is held at the Bodleian Library, Oxford University.
549. ——. 1956. Ethnographic notes on the Siwang of central Malaya. JMBRAS 29: 49–69 — based on a 1955 two-day interview in K. Tahan with the Chewong men Beng and Patong, who were there to work for C. S. Ogilvie. [Howell #471]
550. ——. 1960. Research projects in Southeast Asia. Bulletin of the International Committee on Urgent Anthropological and Ethnological Research3: 63–71 — part of a larger ethnological undertaking to investigate research gaps and priorites; Siwang (Chewong) and Negritos of Malaya (Semang) are on pp. 66–68. [LTP; ASB]


551. ——. 1964. Blood, thunder, and the mockery of animals. Sociologus 14: 136–149 — much cited paper with memorable passages. An ethnological examination of the thunder complex (including the blood sacrifice and taboo on the mockery of animals), drawing from Peninsula (Semang and Senoi) and Borneon materials. Explains core symbols in terms of universal perceptions of nature and, reciprocally, that natural elements provide the stimuli for religious beliefs [LTP]. Reprinted 1967 in Myth and cosmos: Readings in mythology and symbolism, ed. John Middleton (Austin, Tx: University of Texas Press), pp. 271–286.
552. ——. 1964. Temer names. JMBRAS 37(2): 121–125.
553. ——. 1966. Age, category, and descent. BTTLV 122: 1–35 — one of his best known comparative studies; puts his brief Chewong experiences to trenchant use [GB #1677]. Reprinted 1974 in Remarks and inventions: Skeptical essays about kinship (London: Tavistock), pp. 82–88.
554. ——. 1974. Some ethnographic notes on Semelai in northern Pahang. JMBRAS 47: 123–129 — brief fragments published from notes collected at Kg. Tumpat (Wau valley, Sg. Sat) in 1955 when author was looking for the Batek of Up. Kenyam (see #672). This appears to be a study of the Semoq Beri rather than Semelai. [LTP]
555. ——. 1976. Minor reports concerning Negritos in northern Pahang. JMBRAS 49(2): 184–193 — account of a failed attempt to locate the Batek of inner Taman Negara (Up. Tahan, Kenyam, etc.). Includes a brief word list. Reviews what he knew at the time concerning locations of the Batek and Batek Tanum. [LTP]
556. ——. 1984. Chewong (Siwong) in perspective. JMBRAS 57(2): 105–112 — originally prepared (and later discarded) as a foreword to Howell #471. Provides ethnographic and anthropological background to Howell’s study; traces congruence between her analysis of Chewong and KME’s of Malay magic and Semang religion, and positions both in the Année Sociologique tradition. Critically comments on the major scholarly contributions of the study, especially Howell’s analysis of Chewong modes of classification and ordering natural phenomena. [LTP]
557. NEWBOLD, T. J. 1839. Political and statistical account of the British settlements in the Straits of Malacca. 2 vols. London: John Murray — a much-cited account, with “Remarks on aborigines”, and vocabularies. His account of Belandas and Mantra (Temuan) includes an outline of the system of ranked leadership, the role of headmen in electing Malay chiefs, and myths of human descent from animals. Also with information on slavery [LTP; Skagden]. Reprinted 1971, with introd. C. M. Turnbull (Singapore: Oxford in Asia Historical Reprints Series, OUP).
558. NICHOLAS, Arsenio. 1994. Alat muzik Melayu dan Orang Asli [Malay and Orang Asli musical instruments]. Bangi, Selangor: Institut Alam dan Tamadun Melayu, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
559. NICHOLAS, Colin. 1990. “In the name of the Semai? The state and Semai society in Peninsular Malaysia”. Pp. 68–88 in #574.
560. ——. 1992. Merchant capital and the simple reproduction squeeze in Semai society. Ilmu Masyarakat 21: 74–82.
561. ——. 1993. “We need to reciprocate”. Pp. 41–48 in #455. [see notes for #455]
562. ——. 1994. Pathway to dependence: Commodity relations and the dissolution of Semai society. Clayton, Victoria, Australia: Monash papers on Southeast Asia no. 33, Monash University Centre of Southeast Asia Studies — examines how subsistence economies became dominated by production for exchange. Identifies two main parties in this process: the state (preoccupied by national security concerns) and merchant capital (which took advantage of unequal terms of exchange). For these parties, it was to their interest to establish and reinforce the conditions necessary for the introduction of commodity relations. These processes then led to the loss of Semai autonomy and those features of their production system that had been “humanizing”. Surplus was appropriated by external forces, and Semai were left in poverty and dependency [extract]. Revision of 1985 M.Sc. thesis (Faculty of Resource Economics and Agribusiness, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang).
563. ——. 1995. Belum area management and development plan: Orang Asli sector. Management Guidelines for a Proposed Belum Nature Park, pp. 99–113. Tunku M. Nazim Yaacob and Associate (sponsored by GTZ Germany) — study conducted mainly among Jahai of Air Banun.
564. ——. 1997. Putting the people into EIAs: Assessing environmental impacts on indigenous peoples. The Malayan Naturalist 15 no. 1, August: 34–38.
565. ——. 1999. Orang Asli self-determination and the control of resources. CSQ 23 no. 4, Winter: 49–53.
566. ——. 1999. Providing for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of the Jakun of Kampung Peta in the Endau-Rompin national park. Consultancy Report. MNS-MEC/Johor National Parks, Kuala Lumpur.


567. ——. 2000. The Orang Asli and the contest for resources: Indigenous politics, development and identity in Peninsular Malaysia. Copenhagen: IWGIA Document no. 95, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs and Kuala Lumpur: COAC — argues that development programmes and policies, cloaked in a policy of assimilation and integration, have a single ideological goal—enable the control of the Orang Asli and to control their traditional territories and resources. The common experience of diminished cultural autonomy helped develop a political consciousness beyond the local level such that a new Orang Asli indigenousness emerged as a political strategy for more effective affirmation of their rights [extract]. Revision of 1999 Ph.D. thesis (Institute of Postgraduate Study and Research, University of Malaya). For reviews, see: “The Orang Asli as they really are” by Otto Steinmayer (NST 7/3/2001) and “Mengenali jati diri Orang Asli” (Berita Harian19/1/2001).
568. ——. 2001. “Profiting from indigenous peoples”. Pp. 39–52 in People before profits: The rights of Malaysian communities in development. Ed. Kua Kia Soong. Petaling Jaya, Selangor: Suaram Komunikasi/Strategic Info Research Development.
569. ——. 2001/2002. “Organising Orang Asli identity”. In Benjamin and Chou, eds., #126 — on the heterogeneity and situational basis of Orang Asli identities, and how ethnic formation developed in conjunction with various contexts of political organization and culture contact. This heterogeneity may work against the long-term interests of the Orang Asli: not only is there not a uniform agreement as to the meaning of the name, there are many organizations that represent different Orang Asli interests. The government can pick and choose among these “representatives” depending on political need. A good review of what “Orang Asli” actually means and how it is interpreted differently by different sectors of Orang Asli communities and different agents of the state in recent history [LTP]. For publication notes, see #126.
570. NICHOLAS, Colin, and Anthony WILLIAMS-HUNT. 1996. “Orang Asli”. Pp. 451–476 in Malaysia’s economic development: Policies and reforms. Ed. Jomo K.S. and Ng Siew Keat. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Institute for Economic Research and Pelanduk Press — the volume as a whole examines policies from the perspective of different sectors of Malaysian society. [CN]
571. NICHOLAS, Colin, Anthony WILLIAMS-HUNT, and TIAH Sabak. 1989. Orang Asli in the news: The Emergency years, 1950–1958. Petaling Jaya, Selangor: Center for Orang Asli Concerns — mimeographed scrapbook of newspaper cuttings retrieved from the collection of P. D. R. Williams-Hunt (and updated by unknown persons at the Department of Aborigines), with a short commentary by CN. An invaluable historical document. [LTP]
572. NICHOLAS, Colin, TIJAH Yok Chopil, and TIAH Sabak. 2001. “The Semai and relations with land and forests” and “The Semai: Impact of the market economy on livelihood and gender relations.” Pp. 19–24 and 117–120 in Seeing the forest for the people: A handbook on gender, forestry and rural livelihoods. Ed. Vanessa Griffen. Kuala Lumpur: Gender and Development Programme, Asian and Pacific Development Centre — case study reports for a regional research project to conduct a gender analysis of forestry policies and rural livelihoods. [LTP]
573. NIK MOHD. ZAIN b. Nik Yusof. 1997. Dasar pemilikan tanah oleh Orang-Orang Asli di Semenanjung Malaysia [Orang Asli land ownership]. Paper presented at the National Conference of the Rights of the Indigenous Peoples of Malaysia to Land and Identity, 2–3 September, Kuala Lumpur, University of Malaya — contains useful data on Orang Asli land ownership for 1997, which is reproduced in CN #684. Conference organised by the Malaysian Social Science Association (PSSM), Peninsular Malaysia Orang Asli Association (POASM), National Indigenous Peoples Network of Malaysia (JOAS).
574. NITTA, Aya. 1984. On “tepas terbang”, a folk medicine used by Orang Asli. Yakugaku Zasshi 104(3): 256–260 [in Japanese, with English abstract] — on a rhizome of the ginger family. [ASB]
575. NOBUTA, Toshihiro. 1996. Inland trade route and its strategic aspects among the Orang Asli: A case study of Senoi Temiar. Journal of Asian and African Studies 51: 185–208 [in Japanese] — pre-fieldwork, literature review. Journal published by the Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
576. ——. 1996. The bicara of the Orang Asli: Dialogue among the Orang Asli. Annual Reports of Social Anthropology 22: 105–140 [in Japanese] — pre-fieldwork, literature review of conflict resolution among Semai.
577. ——. 1998. Islamization among the Orang Asli. Kobayasi Setsutaro Memorial Fund, Fuji Xerox, Tokyo [in Japanese] — report from fieldwork with the Temuan of Parit Gong.
578. ——. 1999. Conversion and resistance: An examination of Islamization among the Orang Asli in Malaysia. TAK 37(2): 257–296 [in Japanese, with English abstract] — examines the effects of Islamization among Temuan of Parit Gong; documenting conflicts arising from a divorce case, where only one of the partners is Muslim. [summary]
579. ——. 1999. Unresolvable incest: Adat, Islam and government among the Orang Asli. Nampo-Bunka (Tenri Bulletin of South Asian Studies) 26: 23–48 [in Japanese; journal published by the Center for South Asian Studies, Tenri University].
580. ——. 2000. “Orang Atas” and “Orang Bawah”: Development and stratification among the Orang Asli. Annual Reports of Social Anthropology26: 129–156 [in Japanese; journal published by Tokyo Metropolitan University, Social Anthropological Association] — on intracommunity tensions among Temuan of Parit Gong and how different sectors of the community perceive one another and relate to outsiders, including government officers. [T Nobuta]
581. NOONE, H[erbert] D[eane]. 1936. Report on the settlements and welfare of the Ple-Temiar Senoi of the Perak-Kelantan watershed. J. Fed. Mal. St. Musms. 19 (Part 1): 1–85 — until the 1960s, this was the most detailed account of a defined study group. Noone intended this to be an introduction to further studies, but the war intervened and his notes were lost. Includes some important historical information. Appendices contain basic demography, health and disease information and, most important, his “Proposed Aboriginal Policy” which formed the basis for future government policy. This includes proposals on land, protection of indigenous autonomy and ways of life, settlement patterns, and development of certain forms of employment. [LTP; CN #679]
582. ——. 1939. Chinchem: A study of the role of dream-experience in culture-contact amongst the Temiar Senoi of Malaya. Man [=JRAI] 39: 57 — brief report on the introduction of chinchem, a new ceremonial dance-and-song complex, which has mobilized the community to adjust more energetically to the culture contact situation [LTP]. Note in the section “Royal Anthropological Institute: Proceedings”
583. ——. 1939. Customs relating to death and burial among the Orang Ulu (Jakun) of Ulu Johor. J. Fed. Mal. St. Musms. 15(4): 180–194.
584. ——. 1939. Some vital statistics of the lowland Senoi of Perak. J. Fed. Mal. St. Musms. 15(4): 195–215 — sparse demographic data on 14 groups; investigates what are the effects of culture contact on population. [ASB; Gomes #1679]
585. ——. 1939. The Penarikan and Bernam land-routes. JMBRAS 17: 144–145.
586. ——. 1940. Vital statistics of a primitive people; abstracts. Nature no. 145, 20/1/1940: 97–98.
587. NOONE, R[ichard] O. D. 1949. Nutritional aspects of the preparation of the hill paddy among the Temiar Senoi. Pp. 5–7 in #201.
588. ——. 1949. The first fruits of the hillrice harvest among the Temiar Senoi of the Plus-Temiar aboriginal area. Pp. 5–7 in #201.
589. ——. 1954. Notes on the trade in blowpipes and blowpipe bamboo in north Malaya. FMJ (n.s.) I and II: 1–18 — traces the sources of supply for blowpipe bamboo and the trade routes along which materials and finished pipes travel between groups (Temiar, Kintaq, Jahai). Convincing evidence of conscious efforts to manage resource stocks and establish rights of harvest, access, and exploitation. The only major account of internal exchange between Orang Asli groups and the first systematic analysis of patterns reported impressionistically in earlier literature. [LTP; ATR #1680]


590. NOONE, Richard, and Dennis HOLMAN. 1972. In search of the dream people. New York: Morrow — Noone, who succeeded P. D. R. Williams-Hunt as the Adviser on Aborigines following John Blacking’s dismissal from the post, describes his investigations into the death of his brother H. D. “Pat” Noone during the Second World War and his own administrative efforts (including starting up the Senoi Pra’aq military regiment). Includes some nice snapshots of the brothers’ relationship and the colourful personality of Pat Noone. [LTP]
591. NOR HAYATI Abd. Rasid, and FARIDAH Abu Hassan. 1989. Education for ethnic minorities: The case of the Orang Asli. Bulletin of the UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific (Bangkok) 30: 147–159.
592. NORAINI bt. Awang Mat. 1992. Penglibatan dan kesedaran Orang Asli dalam politik: Fokus pilihanraya 1990 kawasan Gua Musang, Kelantan [Orang Asli political involvement and consciousness: Focus on the 1990 elections in Gua Musang, Kelantan]. B.A. Grad. Ex., Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur — on Temiar.
593. NORHANI Bebe bt. Alia Miah. 1988. Orang Temiar di Kampung Ulu Grik, Perak: Satu kajian etnografi [The Temiar of Kg. Ulu Grik, Perak: An ethnographic study]. B.A. Grad. Ex., Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
594. NOWAK, Barbara S. 1982. The personal side of anthropological research: Field experiences among the Hmak Merih. Manusia dan Masyarakat3: 46–49.
595. ——. 1984. Can the partnership last: Btsisi’ marital partners and development. CSQ 8(2) — asks whether gender equity can continue among Btsisi’ of Selangor; argues that traditional gender equity is threatened by the government’s policy of giving men preferential treatment in land allocation. [BSN]
596. ——. 1985. The formation of aboriginal reserves: The effects of land loss and development on the Btsisi of Peninsular Malaysia. Pp. 85–110 in Modernization and the emergence of a landless peasantry: Essays on the integration of peripheries to socioeconomic centers. Ed. George N. Appell. Williamsburg, VA: Department of Anthropology, College of William & Mary — explores the impact of modernization and integration into the Malaysian nation on all Orang Asli, but particularly the Btsisi’ of Selangor. Looks at the history of Orang Asli resettlement and the formation of aboriginal reserves; explores land tenure issues, focusing on how Btsisi’ are coping with land loss and related issues of integration & assimilation. [BSN]
597. ——. 1986. Marriage and household: Btsisi’ response to a changing world. Ph.D. thesis, Anthropology Department, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo — examines gender relations in Btsisi’ marriage and households. Describes, in detail, a wedding ceremony and then the actual day-to-day life of a conjugal couple. Elucidates the high degree of gender equity found in Btsisi’ society, and emphasizes the equity existing between husbands and wives. Discussion includes looking at the household structure, the sexual division of labour, and the household in the context of the wider Btsisi’ community. Concludes that, among other thing, Btsisi’ view the brother and sister relationship as a model for the husband–wife relationship. [BSN]
598. ——. 1988. “The cooperative nature of women’s and men’s roles in Btsisi’ marine activities”. Pp. 52–72 in To work is to weep: Women in fishing economies. Ed. Janet Nadel-Klein and Dona Lee Davis. St. John’s: Institute of Social and Economic Research, Memorial University of Newfoundland — examines persistence of gender equity among Btsisi’ of Carey Isl., ideologically as well as practically in the cooperation between husbands and wives. [BSN]
599. ——. 2000. Dancing the main jo’oh: Hma’ Btsisi’ celebrate their humanity and religious identity in a Malaysian world. Australian Journal of Anthropology 11(3): 333–344 — the main jo’oh is a religious dance and song cycle that Btsisi’ are often asked to perform for visitors and tourists. Meanings embodied in the performance form the foundation of Btsisi’ religion and the dance asserts Btsisi’ cultural distinctiveness relative to other Orang Asli and to Malays. [paraphrase]
600. NOWAK, Barbara S., and Peter F. LAIRD. 1998. “Human rights, advocacy and field research: The moral dilemma anthropologists face”. Pp. 17–29 in The changing field. Ed. Peter J. Cleave. New Zealand: Campus Publications — discusses the problems researchers face as to whether they should or should not criticize the host government’s treatment of a minority people (such as Orang Asli) under fear that they or other researchers might be banned from research at a future date. [BSN]
601. NURIZAN Yahaya, and SITI NAZLY Abd. Shattar. 1994. Pola dan pengubahsuaian perumahan masyarakat Orang Asli Temuan di Jelebu, Negri Sembilan [Directions and adaptations in Temuan housing]. Manusia dan Masyarakat (n.s.) 9: 87–97.
602. NYONYO Ayot. 1996. Pengaruh pencapaian akademik kanak-kanak Orang Asli di Negeri Sembilan [Influences on the academic achievement of Orang Asli children]. B.Sc. thesis (Human Development), Fakulti Ekologi Manusia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang.
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